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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population

From: Effects of the regular intake of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri (DSM 17938) on respiratory and gastrointestinal infections in a workplace setting: a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial

  Intervention group (n = 121) Control group (n = 121) p-valuea
Age:    
  Mean (SD) 41.7 years (9.9) 41.7 years (9.6) 1.0
  Minimum-maximum 19–61 19–58  
  < 30 19 (15.7%) 17 (14.0%) 0.62
  30 to <40 30 (24.8%) 24 (19.8%)
  40 to <50 42 (34.7%) 51 (42.1%)
  50 to <60 29 (24.0%) 29 (24.0%)
  60+ 1 (0.8%) 0 (0.0%)
BMI:    
  Mean (SD) 27.8 (3.9) 27.5 (3.8) 95% CI, −0.7 to 1.2, p = 0.57
  Min-max 18.4–40.2 17.9–36.8  
  Underweight 1 (0.8%) 1 (0.8%) 0.96
  Normal 29 (24.0%) 30 (24.8%)
  Overweight 56 (46.3%) 57 (47.1%)
  Obesity 35 (28.9%) 33 (27.3%)
Country of birth:    
  Germany 103 (85.1%) 98 (81.0%) 0.17
  Turkey 11 (9.1%) 8 (6.6%)
  Others 7 (5.8%) 15 (12.4%)
Work:    
  Shift work 60 (49.6%) 66 (54.5%) 0.44
  Part time 2 (1.7%) 1 (0.8%) 1,0b
  Mostly standing 69 (57.0%) 72 (59.5%) 0.75
  Mostly sedentary 47 (38.8%) 45 (37.2%)
Reported working exposures:    
  Noise 69 (57.0%) 76 (62.8%) 0.36
  Temperature fluctuations 66 (54.5%) 76 (62.8%) 0.19
  Heat 42 (34.7%) 51 (42.1%) 0.28
  Cold 49 (40.5%) 52 (43.0%) 0.61
  Dust 65 (53.7%) 76 (62.8%) 0.15
  Carbon dioxide 24 (19.8%) 23 (19.0%) 0.82
  Smoke 22 (18.2%) 26 (21.5%) 0.63
  Heavy lifting/carrying 32 (26.4%) 31 (25.6%) 0.85
  Mental stress 74 (61.2%) 69 (57.0%) 0.51
Frequent lifestyle habits:    
  Smoking 41 (33.9%) 39 (32.2%) 0.79
  Alcohol consumption 8 (6.6%) 7 (5.8%) 0.79
  Physical activities 43 (35.5%) 46 (38.0%) 0.69
  Consumption of fruits and vegetables 87 (71.9%) 99 (81.8%) 0.07
  Consumption of probiotic foods 4 (3.3%) 12 (9.9%) 0.04
Flu vaccination 16 (13.2%) 12 (9.9%) 0.44
  1. ap-values calculated using chi-square test or t-test.
  2. bp-value calculated using Fisher’s exact test.