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Table 4 Estimated mass production costs for “heart healthy bread” designsa

From: Designing low-cost “heart healthy bread”: optimization using linear programing and 15-country comparison

Components Commercial white loaf in NZ HHB$1.5 loaf HHB$3 loaf
  NZ$ % NZ$ (US$) % NZ$ (US$) %
Food ingredients 0.70 70 1.15 79 2.27 88
Packaging 0.01 1 0.01 1 0.01 1
Production wages 0.24 24 0.24 16 0.24 9
Vehicle fuel costs, energy and water 0.05 5 0.05 3 0.05 2
Total 1.00 100 1.46 (0.99) 100 2.57 (1.75) 100
Total price after profit mark-up of 10 %    1.60 (1.09)   2.83 (1.93)  
– of 25 % mark-up    1.82 (1.24)   3.21 (2.19)  
– of 50 % mark-up    2.19 (1.49)   3.86 (2.63)  
Loaf weight (g) – average 600   1036   1190  
– range    1004 to 1057   1184 to 1195  
Price NZ$/100 g at 25 % mark-up (US$)    0.18 (0.12)   0.27 (0.18)  
  1. a Relatively simple cost-structure based on the Canadian baking industry [48] and this was used to estimate the ability of the NZ baking industry to obtain cheaper ingredients relative to the supermarket prices used in the earlier HHB analyses (see Methods). All the prices shown are inclusive of a NZ sales tax (GST) of 15 %. For this analysis we assumed HHBs would be mass produced by existing bread manufacturers with existing plant and machinery and distribution networks