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Table 4 Multinomial logistic regression model showing the determinants of thinness and overweight/obesity among school pupils

From: Malnutrition and associated factors in children: a comparative study between public and private schools in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana

Exploratory variables Thinness Overweight/obesity
n/N(%) RR (95 % CI) P-value n/N(%) RR (95 % CI) P-value
Type of school
 Public 33/417(7.91) 4.7 (1.5–21.2) 0.028 8/417(2.0) 0.3(0.1–1) 0.043
 Private 3/216(1.4) Reference   19/216(9.0) Reference  
Sex
 Male 16/321(5.0) Reference   14/312(4.5) Reference  
 Female 20/312(6.41) 1.4(0.7–2.7) 0.360 13/321(4.0) 1.1(0.5–2.0) 0.777
Location of school
 Rural 24/291(8.25) 1.2(0.5–2.7) 0.602 3/291(1.0) 0.2(0.1–2.3) 0.435
 Urban 12/341(3.5) Reference   24/342(7.0) Reference  
Age of pupils (years)
 3–5 5/116(6.0) Reference   2/116(1.7) Reference  
 6–12 31/517(5.01) 0.2(0.0–1.9) 0.147 25/517(4.8) 1.1(0.5–20.1) 0.927
Fruit consumption ≥3 times weekly
 No 24/473(3.87) Reference   18/473(3.8) Reference  
 Yes 12/160(7.5) 0.6(0.3–1.4) 0.207 9/160(5.6) 1.3(0.6–3.2) 0.417
Eats breakfast every morning before school
 No 3/38(7.9) Reference   1/38(2.6) Reference  
 Yes 33/595(5.6) 1.4(0.4–5.3) 0.599 26/595(4.4) 5.6(0.5–56.5) 0.147
Frequency of meals in a day
 Twice daily 3/10(30.0) 9.4(2.0–47.8) 0.007 1/6(16.7) 1.0(0.8–14) 0.078
 3 times daily 26/466(5.6) Reference   17/470(3.7) Reference  
 4 times daily 7/157(4.5) 1.0 (0–2.7) 0685 9/157(5.7) 0.7(0.3–1.7) 0.441
Class group
 Kindergarten 5/167(3.0) 0.2(0–1.9) 0.158 3/167(1.8) 0.3(0.1–1.4) 0.290
 Class 1–3 10/242(4.1) Reference   11/242(4.5) Reference  
 Class 4–6 21/242(9.4) 2.3(1.0–5.2) 0.045 13/224(5.8) 1.6(0.7–3.7) 0.280
Guardian occupation
 Formal sector 1/45(2.2) 1.0(0.1–12.4) 0.978 2/46(4.4) 0.3(0.1–1.4) 0.123
 Petty trading 11/239(4.6) 1.9(0.4–9.5) 0.399 10/239(4.2) 0.5(0.2–1.1) 0.093
 Unemployed 6/81(7.4) 2.3(0.4–13.0) 0.333 5/81(6.2) 0.8(0.2–2.9) 0.788
 Artisan 2/89(2.3) Reference   9/89(10.1) Reference  
 Farming 15/178(8.4) 2.7(0.5–13.1) 0.230 1/178(0.6) 0.1(0.01–1) 0.049
Prob > chi2 = 0.0000, Pseudo R2 = 0.1462