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Table 1 Comparison of study populations used to develop equations

From: Sodium intake in Germany estimated from sodium excretion measured in spot urine samples

  Johner et al. (2014, 2015) [28, 36] Toft et al. (2014) [31] Brown et al. (2013) [35] Tanaka et al. (2002) [32] Kawasaki et al. (1993) [33]
Study VERA DanThyr & Inter99 Intersalt Intersalt  
n 1463 473 5693 591 159
Age (years) 20–79 25–65 20–59 20–59 20–79
Female (%) 58 78 50 50 51
Region Germany Denmark North America & Europe Japan Japan
Spot urine sample   Casual urine Casual urine Casual urine Second morning urine
Mean Na concentration (mmol/d)   195 (men)  139 (women) 147–240 (men)a  118–168 (women)a 198 (men)  177 (women) 233 (men)  186 (women)
Parameters considered to estimate creatinine reference values Age group, sex Age, sex, body mass, body height   Age, body mass, body height Age, sex, body mass, body height
Parameters considered to estimate daily Na excretion Na concentration in casual urine, creatinine concentration in casual urine, creatinine reference value Na concentration in casual urine, creatinine concentration in casual urine, creatinine reference value, sex Na concentration in casual urine, Creatinine concentration in casual urine, sex, BMI, age (only women), K concentration in casual urine Na concentration in casual urine, creatinine concentration in casual urine, creatinine reference value Na concentration in second morning urine, creatinine concentration in second morning urine, creatinine reference value
  1. Key characteristics of study populations which were used to develop equations to estimate daily sodium excretion from spot urine concentrations (casual urine: sampling at any daytime possible, no time frame targeted)
  2. aRange of the means of included regions