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Table 2 Univariable analysis of socio-demographic characteristics and underweight status in children under five in Rwanda, DHS 2010

From: Risk factors associated with underweight status in children under five: an analysis of the 2010 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey (RDHS)

  N weighted Underweight % Univariate
OR [95 % CI] p-value
Child characteristics     
 Underweight 469 11.4 - -
Child size at birth* age in months     
 Not small size, <12 444 11.2 1  
 Small size, <12 23 16.9 1.62 [0.97, 2.70] 0.067
 Not small size, 12–23 442 11.1 1  
 Small size, 12–23 25 19.6 1.95 [1.23, 3.10] 0.005
 Not small size, 24–35 441 11.1 1  
 Small size, 24–35 25 18.8 1.85 [1.18, 2.90] 0.008
 Not small size, 36–47 444 11.1 1  
 Small size, 36–47 22 19.6 1.95 [1.14, 3.33] 0.015
 Not small size, 48–59 438 11.0 1  
 Small size, 48–59 28 23.2 2.45 [1.60, 3.75] <0.001
Child sex     
 Girls 2075 10.0 1  
 Boys 2101 12.7 1.31 [1.06, 1.60] 0.010
Breastfeeding     
 Ever breastfed, not currently breastfeeding 2025 11.7 1  
 Never breastfed 12 16.4 1.48 [0.36, 6.09] 0.586
 Still breastfeeding 2123 11.0 0.94 [0.78, 1.13] 0.495
Fever in last 2 weeks     
 No 3481 10.7 1  
 Yes 693 14.7 1.43 [1.09, 1.86] 0.009
Deworming (drugs for intestinal parasites in last 6 months)     
 No 897 9.3 1  
 Yes 3278 12 1.33 [1.01, 1.76] 0.040
Diarrhea in last 2 weeks     
 No 3606 11.0 1  
 Yes 569 13.9 1.31 [1.00, 1.72] 0.052
Full vaccinated     
 No 1029 10.2 1  
 Yes 3147 11.8 1.18 [0.92, 1.52] 0.191
Birth interval (from previous birth)     
 Singleton first-born 1014 6.8 1  
 Singleton birth <2 years 624 8.4 1.26 [0.89, 1.80] 0.193
 Singleton birth > =2 years 2437 13.2 2.09 [1.59, 2.76] <0.001
 Multiple births 101 31.2 6.21 [3.55, 10.85] <0.001
Mother characteristics     
Mother age     
 15–24 years 755 6.9 1  
 25–34 years 2255 10.5 1.58 [1.09, 2.28] 0.015
 35–49 years 1166 16.1 2.59 [1.79, 3.76] <0.001
Mother’s highest level of educational     
 No education 803 14.7 6.06 [3.22, 11.42] <0.001
 Primary 3016 11.5 4.60 [2.51, 8.43] <0.001
 Secondary or higher 357 2.8 1  
Smoking     
 No 3988 11.1 1  
 Yes 188 16.6 1.59 [1.00, 2.53] 0.049
Body mass index of mother     
  < 18.5 underweight 186 24.5 2.52 [1.67, 3.81] <0.001
 18.5–24.9 normal weight 3000 11.4 1  
 25.0–29.9 overweight 528 6.2 0.51 [0.35, 0.75] 0.001
  > =30 Obesity 94 7.7 0.65 [0.31, 1.35] 0.245
Delivered by health care professional     
 Yes 2919 9.9 1  
 No 1257 14.8 1.57 [1.28, 1.94] <0.001
Number of antenatal care visits     
 None 53 10.1 1  
 1 136 16.2 1.72 [0.61, 4.88] 0.306
 2-3 1790 10.9 1.10 [0.43, 2.79] 0.843
 4+ 1084 9.6 0.95 [0.36, 2.46] 0.909
Mother occupation     
 Not working 415 13.1 2.35 [1.33, 4.13] 0.003
 Skilled worker 374 6.0 1  
 Unskilled worker 3385 11.8 2.09 [1.33, 3.26] 0.001
Marital status     
 Single 255 10.2 1  
 Married 3573 11.0 1.09 [0.69, 1.75] 0.703
Divorced/separated 348 15.9 1.66 [0.96, 2.87] 0.068
Household characteristics     
Number of living children     
 1-3 2547 9.5 1  
 4+ 1629 14.3 1.58 [1.27, 1.96] <0.001
Number of persons in household     
 2-3 599 7.8 1  
 4+ 3577 12.0 1.61 [1.17, 2.22] 0.004
Sex of the household head     
 Female 877 11.8 1.05 [0.83, 1.33] 0.654
 Male 3299 11.3 1  
Residence     
 Urban 484 6.4 1  
 Rural 3692 12.0 2.00 [1.35, 2.95] 0.001
Wealth quintiles     
 Top 2 1480 7.4 1  
 Middle 848 11.3 1.58 [1.15, 2.17] 0.004
 Bottom 2 1848 14.6 2.14 [1.66, 2.75] <0.001
Toilet is clean upon inspection     
 Yes 1442 8.7 1  
 No 2717 12.8 1.53 [1.21, 1.94] <0.001
Type of quality of toilet     
 Unimproved shared 203 19.4 2.17 [1.43, 3.30] <0.00
 Improved shared 575 9.2 0.91 [0.62, 1.33] 0.635
 Improved not shared 2431 10.0 1  
 Unimproved not shared 866 15.0 1.60 [1.24, 2.07] 0.001
Proximity to improved water source     
 Water on premise 167 5.5 1  
  < 30 minutes 1787 11.9 2.31 [1.22, 4.38] 0.010
  > =30 minutes 2181 11.6 2.26 [1.20, 4.28] 0.012
Anything done to water to make safe to drink     
 Yes 2058 9.5 1  
 No 2118 13.2 1.44 [1.15, 1.80] 0.001
  1. *Women were asked, when the child was born “was he/she very large, larger than average, average, smaller than average, or very small?” We considered “smaller than average” and “very small” to be “small at birth” in this analysis