Skip to main content

Table 3 Multivariable analysis of risk factors associated with being underweight among children under five in Rwanda, DHS 2010

From: Risk factors associated with underweight status in children under five: an analysis of the 2010 Rwanda Demographic Health Survey (RDHS)

  Full model Reduced model
OR [95 % CI] p-value OR [95 % CI] p-value
Child characteristics     
Size at birth* by age in months     
 Normal, <12 1   1  
 Small, <12 2.56 [1.40, 4.69] 0.002 2.38 [1.32, 4.28] 0.004
 Not small size, 12–23 1   1  
 Small size, 12–23 1.56 [0.84, 2.90] 0.161 1.36 [0.75, 2.47] 0.310
 Not small size, 24–35 1   1  
 Small size, 24–35 2.49 [1.39, 4.21] 0.002 2.46 [1.45, 4.19] 0.001
 Not small size, 36–47 1   1  
 Small size, 36–47 1.99 [1.01, 3.90] 0.045 2.16 [1.13, 4.15] 0.020
 Not small size, 48–59 1   1  
 Small size, 48–59 2.25 [1.29, 3.93] 0.004 2.27 [1.31, 3.94] 0.003
Sex     
 Boys 1.42 [1.13, 1.79] 0.003 1.42 [1.12, 1.79] 0.002
 Girls 1   1  
Fever in last 2 weeks     
 No 1    
 Yes 1.44 [1.05, 1.97] 0.023 1.45 [1.07, 1.97] 0.016
Received drugs for intestinal parasites in last 6 months     
 No 1    
 Yes 1.19 [0.82, 1.74] 0.365   
Diarrhea in previous 2 weeks     
 No 1    
 Yes 1.21 [0.86, 1.71] 0.274   
Birth interval (from previous birth)     
 Singleton first-born 1   1  
 Singleton birth <2 years 1.12 [0.71, 1.76] 0.622 1.17 [0.76, 1.82] 0.476
 Singleton birth > =2 years 1.46 [0.95, 2.22] 0.082 1.69 [1.14, 2.51] 0.010
 Multiple births 3.56 [1.84, 6.86] <0.001 4.04 [2.12, 7.71] <0.001
Mother characteristics     
Age     
 15–24 years 1    
 25–34 years 1.17 [0.73, 1.87] 0.506 1.17 [0.74, 1.84] 0.496
 35–49 years 1.65 [0.97, 2.80] 0.066 1.67 [1.04, 2.70] 0.035
Highest level of educational     
 No education 3.14 [1.61, 6.12] 0.001 3.56 [1.83, 6.95] 0.001
 Primary 3.34 [1.78, 6.26] <0.001 3.49 [1.87, 6.51] <0.001
 Secondary or higher 1   1  
Smoking     
 No 1    
 Yes 0.89 [0.53, 1.49] 0.649   
Body mass index     
  < 18.5 2.80 [1.78, 4.40] <0.001 2.62 [1.70, 4.04] <0.001
 18.5-24.9 1   1  
 25.0-29.9 0.67 [0.45, 0.99] 0.046 0.66 [0.44, 0.98] 0.040
  > =30 1.16 [0.55, 2.47] 0.695 0.99 [0.45, 2.16] 0.978
Delivered by health care professional     
 Yes 1   1  
 No 1.26 [0.97, 1.63] 0.080 1.33 [1.04, 1.72] 0.025
Occupation     
 Not working 2.00 [1.03, 3.88] 0.041   
 Skilled worker 1    
 Unskilled worker 1.32 [0.74, 2.35] 0.340   
Marital status     
 Single 1    
 Married 1.06 [0.63, 1.80] 0.814   
 Divorced/separated 1.68 [0.92, 3.08] 0.090   
Household characteristics     
Number of living children     
 1–3 1    
 4+ 1.10 [0.82, 1.48] 0.517   
Number of persons in household     
 2–3 1    
 4+ 1.54 [1.02, 2.32] 0.039   
Residence     
 Urban 1    
 Rural 1.11 [0.69, 1.78] 0.674   
Wealth quintiles     
 Wealthiest (top two quintiles) 1    
 Middle 1.25 [0.85, 1.82] 0.252 1.32 [0.92, 1.91] 0.131
 Poorest (bottom two quintiles) 1.47 [1.06, 2.04] 0.020 1.71 [1.27, 2.30] <0.001
Toilet is clean upon inspection     
 No 1.09 [0.82, 1.45] 0.541   
 Yes 1    
Type of quality of toilet     
 Unimproved shared 1.81 [1.09, 3.03] 0.023   
 Improved shared 1.06 [0.71, 1.60] 0.770   
 Improved not shared 1    
 Unimproved not shared 1.14 [0.83, 1.55] 0.412   
Proximity to improved water source     
 Water on premise 1    
  < 30 minutes 1.04 [0.47, 2.28] 0.926   
  > =30 minutes 0.90 [0.41, 1.97] 0.788   
Anything done to water to make safe to drink     
 Yes 1    
 No 1.24 [0.97, 1.60] 0.088   
  1. *Women were asked, when the child was born “was he/she very large, larger than average, average, smaller than average, or very small?” We considered “smaller than average” and “very small” to be “small at birth” in this analysis