# Table 2 Factors (feeding practices) associated with malnutrition in children attending PML Children’s Hospital in Accra, Ghana

Nutritional status of child

Malnourished

Well-nourished

Characteristic

n, %

n, %

Odds Ratio [95 % CI]

p-value

Problem with feeding child (N = 371)

Yes

95 (52.2)

46 (24.3)

3.39 [2.13-5.42]

<0.001

No

87 (47.8)

143 (75.7)

1.00

Child ever been breastfed (N = 371)

No

22 (12.1)

14 (7.4)

1.72 [0.81-3.76]

0.128

Yes

160 (87.9)

175 (92.6)

1.00

Difficulties with breastfeeding (N = 362)

Yes

30 (17.3)

34 (18.0)

0.96 [0.54-1.70]

0.871

No

143 (82.7)

155 (82.0)

1.00

Breastfeeding status (1st six months) (N = 328)

Mixed

67 (42.9)

52 (30.2)

1.69 [1.01-2.83]

0.034

Predominant

25 (16.0)

36 (20.9)

0.91 [0.47-1.74]

0.764

Exclusive

64 (41.1)

84 (48.2)

1.00

Early initiation of breastfeeding (N = 298)

<1 h

93 (66.4)

106 (67.1)

0.97 [0.58-1.62]

0.904

≥1 h

47 (33.6)

52 (32.9)

1.00

Age of addition of complementary food (N = 351)

<6 months

58 (33.7)

38 (21.2)

1.89 [1.14-3.14]

0.009

≥6 months

114 (66.3)

141 (78.8)

1.00

Child was fed only formula food from birth (N = 354) Yes

15 (8.9)

11 (5.9)

1.54 [0.64-3.82]

0.291

No

154 (91.1)

174 (94.1)

1.00

Child was bottle-fed (N = 352)

Yes

28 (16.3)

10 (5.6)

3.31 [1.49-7.87]

0.001

No

144 (83.7)

170 (94.4)

1.00

Duration of breastfeeding (N = 87)

<6 months

14 (31.8)

6 (14.0)

2.88 [0.89-10.18]

0.048

≥6 months

30 (68.2)

37 (86.0)

1.00

Frequency of egg eating (N = 183) 1

Never or occasional

75 (90.4)

82 (82.0)

2.06 [0.79-5.78

0.107

≥1× a week

8 (9.6)

18 (18.0)

1.00

Frequency of meat/fish eating (N = 173) 1

Occasional (not everyday)

44 (57.9)

45 (46.4)

1.59 [0.83-3.05]

0.133

Every day

32 (42.1)

52 (53.6)

1.00

Frequency of fruit eating (N = 179) 1

Occasional (not everyday)

57 (70.4)

52 (53.1)

2.10 [1.08-4.11]

0.018

Every day

24 (29.6)

46 (46.9)

1.00

1. 1Only children between the ages of 12 months and 59 months were included in the sampling; CI = Confidence interval