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Table 2 Factors (feeding practices) associated with malnutrition in children attending PML Children’s Hospital in Accra, Ghana

From: Feeding practices and malnutrition at the Princess Marie Louise Children’s hospital, Accra: what has changed after 80 years?

   Nutritional status of child   
   Malnourished Well-nourished   
Characteristic   n, % n, % Odds Ratio [95 % CI] p-value
Problem with feeding child (N = 371) Yes 95 (52.2) 46 (24.3) 3.39 [2.13-5.42] <0.001
  No 87 (47.8) 143 (75.7) 1.00  
Child ever been breastfed (N = 371) No 22 (12.1) 14 (7.4) 1.72 [0.81-3.76] 0.128
  Yes 160 (87.9) 175 (92.6) 1.00  
Difficulties with breastfeeding (N = 362) Yes 30 (17.3) 34 (18.0) 0.96 [0.54-1.70] 0.871
  No 143 (82.7) 155 (82.0) 1.00  
Breastfeeding status (1st six months) (N = 328) Mixed 67 (42.9) 52 (30.2) 1.69 [1.01-2.83] 0.034
  Predominant 25 (16.0) 36 (20.9) 0.91 [0.47-1.74] 0.764
  Exclusive 64 (41.1) 84 (48.2) 1.00  
Early initiation of breastfeeding (N = 298) <1 h 93 (66.4) 106 (67.1) 0.97 [0.58-1.62] 0.904
  ≥1 h 47 (33.6) 52 (32.9) 1.00  
Age of addition of complementary food (N = 351) <6 months 58 (33.7) 38 (21.2) 1.89 [1.14-3.14] 0.009
  ≥6 months 114 (66.3) 141 (78.8) 1.00  
Child was fed only formula food from birth (N = 354) Yes 15 (8.9) 11 (5.9) 1.54 [0.64-3.82] 0.291
  No 154 (91.1) 174 (94.1) 1.00  
Child was bottle-fed (N = 352) Yes 28 (16.3) 10 (5.6) 3.31 [1.49-7.87] 0.001
  No 144 (83.7) 170 (94.4) 1.00  
Duration of breastfeeding (N = 87) <6 months 14 (31.8) 6 (14.0) 2.88 [0.89-10.18] 0.048
  ≥6 months 30 (68.2) 37 (86.0) 1.00  
Frequency of egg eating (N = 183) 1 Never or occasional 75 (90.4) 82 (82.0) 2.06 [0.79-5.78 0.107
  ≥1× a week 8 (9.6) 18 (18.0) 1.00  
Frequency of meat/fish eating (N = 173) 1 Occasional (not everyday) 44 (57.9) 45 (46.4) 1.59 [0.83-3.05] 0.133
  Every day 32 (42.1) 52 (53.6) 1.00  
Frequency of fruit eating (N = 179) 1 Occasional (not everyday) 57 (70.4) 52 (53.1) 2.10 [1.08-4.11] 0.018
  Every day 24 (29.6) 46 (46.9) 1.00  
  1. 1Only children between the ages of 12 months and 59 months were included in the sampling; CI = Confidence interval