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Table 3 Beliefs regarding milk and cheese consumption, according to Theory of planned behaviour constructsa

From: Salient beliefs among Canadian adults regarding milk and cheese consumption: a qualitative study based on the theory of planned behaviour

Behavioural beliefs (Attitudes)

Normative beliefs (Subjective norm)

Control belief (Perceived behavioural control)



People/groups approving

People/groups disapproving



Health benefits

Undesirable health effects

Family and friends

Family and friends

Reducing the price

High price

Nutritional advantages

Nutritional disadvantages

Health professionals and advisors

Health professionals and advisors

Potential improvements to the product

Health status as a barrier

Enjoyable tastes

Unpleasant organoleptic properties

Agri-food or restaurant industries

Communications domain

Varied and increased supply

Reducing confidence in the product


Processed product that contains undesirable substances

Communications domain

Persons or groups who promote a diet

Current and better access

Problems linked to the supply

Socio-affective advantages


Socio-political agents

Agri-food or restaurant industries

Increased confidence in the product

Habits and cultural values as barriers

Socio-cultural advantagesc

Questions about sourceb

Persons linked to education

Socio-political agentsc

Favourable social influences

Social influences as barriers

Natural product

Disadvantageous affective valuec


Persons linked to education

Favourable food/drink combinations

Food/drink combinations as barriersb

Staple food



Better packaging or formats

Unpleasant odoursc

Advantages relating to socio-economic impactsc


Cooking information and tips

Limited accessibility


Favourable cultural habits and values

Impractical formats or packagingb


Health status or body weight as a facilitator

Lack of equipmentb


Physical environment as a barrierb


Lack of cooking information or tipsc

  1. aIn descending order of reported frequency
  2. bBelief category that emerged only for milk consumption
  3. cBelief category that emerged only for cheese consumption