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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population in the SCAPIS Diet sub-study

From: Carotenoids and alkylresorcinols as objective biomarkers of diet quality when assessing the validity of a web-based food record tool and a food frequency questionnaire in a middle-aged population

  Women (n =102) n (%) Men (n =98) n (%)
SES area
 low 42 (41) 36 (37)
 high 60 (59) 62 (63)
Smoking: current smokera 14 (14) 9 (9)
Education: university or college degree 43 (42) 37 (38)
BMI (kg/m2)
  < 24.9 50 (49) 20 (21)
 25–29.9 37 (36) 63 (64)
 30+ 15 (15) 15 (15)
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD
Age (y) 57.7 ± 4.5 57.7 ± 4.7
Weight [30] 72.1 ± 13.7 88.3 ± 10.5
BMI (kg/m2) 26.4 ± 4.8 27.4 ± 2.9
Total cholesterol (mmol/L) 5.98 ± 0.94 5.69 ± 1.02
LDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 3.95 ± 0.88 3.61 ± 0.97
HDL-cholesterol (mmol/L) 1.71 ± 0.52 1.85 ± 0.62
Triglycerides (mmol/L) 1.31 ± 0.79 1.29 ± 0.98
  Median ± IQR Median ± IQR
Plasma carotenoids (μmol/L)
 α-carotene 0.21 ± 0.27 0.16 ± 0.16
 β-carotene 0.77 ± 0.79 0.56 ± 0.43
 β-cryptoxanthin 0.13 ± 0.14 0.11 ± 0.11
 lycopene 0.73 ± 0.42 0.71 ± 0.48
 lutein + zeaxanthin 0.42 ± 0.31 0.39 ± 0.24
Total carotenoids 2.40 ± 1.51 2.01 ± 1.14
Plasma alkylresorcinol homologues (nmol/L)
 C:17 2.3 ± 2.0 2.7 ± 3.1
 C:19 6.6 ± 7.8 7.5 ± 11.2
 C:21 8.7 ± 8.7 10.6 ± 16.0
 C:23 4.1 ± 4.0 4.3 ± 5.5
 C:25 4.4 ± 5.1 5.0 ± 6.3
Total AR homologues 21.4 ± 32.8 26.9 ± 28.4
Ratio C17:0/C21:0 0.32 ± 0.15 0.30 ± 0.16
  1. Abbreviations: AR alkylresorcinol, BMI body mass index, IQR interquartile range, SES socio economic status
  2. aMissing data; smoking (n =1)