Skip to main content

Table 3 Spearman’s correlation between energy adjusted intake (g/MJ) of vegetables, fruits + berries, juice, as sum of vegetables + fruits + berries + juice and β-carotene against plasma carotenoid concentrations

From: Carotenoids and alkylresorcinols as objective biomarkers of diet quality when assessing the validity of a web-based food record tool and a food frequency questionnaire in a middle-aged population

  Riksmaten MiniMeal-Q
V F + B J V + F + J β-carotene V F + B J V + F + J β-carotene
Women n = 94
 α-carotene 0.27* 0.31** 0.16 0.38** 0.36** 0.31** 0.41** 0.04 0.47** 0.50**
 β-carotene 0.22* 0.35** 0.16 0.38** 0.33** 0.21* 0.38** 0.08 0.40** 0.35**
 β-cryptoxanthin 0.24* 0.37** 0.16 0.42** 0.24** 0.21* 0.32** 0.16 0.45** 0.24*
 lycopene 0.25* 0.21* 0.02 0.24* 0.14 0.16 0.25* −0.07 0.24* 0.04
 lutein + zeaxanthin 0.46** 0.29** 0.10 0.48** 0.13 0.34** 0.17 0.02 0.42** 0.08
 Total carotenoids 0.32** 0.33** 0.14 0.42** 0.28** 0.30** 0.35** 0.04 0.46** 0.31**
 Total carotenoids - lycopene 0.30** 0.38** 0.17 0.46** 0.32** 0.31** 0.39** 0.07 0.50** 0.35**
Men n = 96
 α-carotene 0.23* −0.04 0.14 0.15 0.16 0.26* 0.11 0.16 0.21* 0.46**
 β-carotene 0.11 −0.12 0.20 0.07 0.07 0.17 0.02 0.25* 0.16 0.29**
 β-cryptoxanthin 0.24* 0.10 0.21* 0.31** 0.23* 0.27** 0.21* 0.25* 0.42** 0.25*
 lycopene 0.09 −0.11 0.00 −0.04 0.05 0.28** 0.05 0.09 0.17 0.26*
 lutein + zeaxanthin 0.19 −0.00 0.06 0.17 0.14 0.25* 0.21* 0.03 0.29** 0.20*
 Total carotenoids 0.21* −0.06 0.14 0.15 0.14 0.32** 0.12 0.18 0.28** 0.39**
 Total carotenoids - lycopene 0.21* −0.03 0.20 0.20 0.15 0.27** 0.15 0.22* 0.31** 0.38**
  1. Abbreviations; V, vegetables (e.g. green leafy vegetables, tomatoes, green beans, peppers, green peas, corn, avocado, broccoli, mushrooms, cabbage, cucumber, leek, olives, aubergine, squash, asparagus, cauliflower and carrots); F + B, fruits and berries (both fresh and frozen); J, juice
  2. *significant at P < 0.05
  3. **significant at P < 0.01