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Table 2 Prevalence of symptoms and illnesses according to maternal recall and physical examination by admission criteria

From: Children with moderate acute malnutrition have inflammation not explained by maternal reports of illness and clinical symptoms: a cross-sectional study in Burkina Faso

  All Low Mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) Low MUAC and low weight-for-height z-score (WHZ) Low WHZ p-value
Maternal recalla, % (n)
 Any symptom 38.0 (608) 34.6 (161) 39.1 (312) 40.2 (135) 0.5
 Fever 20 (322) 17.8 (83) 20.3 (162) 22.9 (77) 0.8
 Diarrhoea 17.9 (286) 14.8 (69) 19.8 (158) 17.6 (59) 0.9
 Cough 9.6 (153) 7.9 (37) 9.5 (76) 11.9 (40) 0.1
 Vomiting 6.8 (109) 4.7 (22) 7.4 (59) 8.3 (28) 0.2
 Skin infections 0.5 (8) 0.4 (2) 0.5 (4) 0.6 (2) 0.9
 Loss of appetite 0.1 (2) 0 (0) 0.1 (1) 0.3 (1) 0.4
Physical examinationa, % (n)
 Any symptom 71.8 (1155) 72.6 (340) 71.9 (578) 74.2 (250) 0.5
 Fever 17.7 (285) 15.6 (73) 17.3 (139) 21.7 (73) 0.1
 Positive malaria test 40.2 (644) 46 (214) 38.8 (310) 35.6 (120) <0.001
  Without fever 31.8 (509) 38.4 (178) 30.7 (245) 25.6 (86) <0.001
  With fever 8.4 (135) 7.8 (36) 8.1 (65) 10.1 (34) 0.8
 Upper respiratory tract infection 14.6 (234) 13.5 (63) 15.8 (127) 13.1 (44) 0.3
 Lower respiratory tract infection 23.2 (373) 20.5 (96) 22.4 (180) 28.8 (97) 0.006
 Diarrhoea 5.8 (94) 5.1 (23) 6 (48) 6.5 (22) 0.9
 Skinb 3.9 (63) 4.5 (21) 3.7 (30) 3.6 (12) 0.6
 Earc 1.1 (17) 1.1 (5) 0.9 (7) 1.5 (5) 0.7
Acute phase proteinsa
 Serum C-reactive protein, mg/l,
  Median (interquartile range) 2.3 (0.8–9.4)     
   > 10 mg/L, % (n) 24.2 (378) 22.7 (103) 24.2 (190) 26.1 (85) 0.06
 Serum α1-acid glycoprotein, g/l,
  Median (interquartile range) 1.2 (0.9–1.6)     
   > 1 g/L, % (n) 66.4 (1039) 62.6 (284) 69.4 (544) 64.7 (211) 0.6
  1. aMissing data: Maternal recall all symptoms (n = 9), fever (n = 1), malaria (n = 8), Upper respiratory tract infection (n = 2), lower respiratory tract infection (n = 1), skin infections (n = 3), ear infections (n = 2), acute phase proteins (n = 45)
  2. bincludes rash, infections, ulcer
  3. cincludes discharge, pain and other