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Table 4 Morbidity by maternal recall and examination as correlates of serum acute phase proteins

From: Children with moderate acute malnutrition have inflammation not explained by maternal reports of illness and clinical symptoms: a cross-sectional study in Burkina Faso

  Serum C-reactive proteind (mg/l) Serum α1-acid glycoprotein (g/l)
  Univariate modelf Multivariate modelf,g Univariate model Multivariate modelf,h
  Estimate (95 % confidence interval)e p-value Estimate (95 % confidence interval)e p-value Estimate (95 % confidence interval)e p-value Estimate (95 % confidence interval)e p-value
Maternal recalla
 Any symptom 1.09 (0.59–1.58) <0.001    0.21 (0.15–0.26) <0.001   
 Fever 2.68 (2.05–3.31) <0.001 2.93 (2.26–3.62) <0.001 0.33 (0.26–0.40) <0.001 0.30 (0.23–0.38) <0.001
 Diarrhoea -0.26 (-0.88-0.35) 0.4 -0.59 (-1.30 -0.13) 0.1 0.05 (-0.02-0.13) 0.1 -0.002 (-0.08–0.07) 0.9
 Cough 1.36 (0.55-2.17) 0.001 0.53 (-0.36-1.43 0.2 0.27 (0.18–0.36) <0.001 0.17 (0.07- 0.26) 0.001
 Vomiting -0.74 (-1.69-0.22) 0.1 -1.53 (-2.65- -0.42) 0.007 0.06 (-0.06-0.17) 0.3 -0.06 (-0.17- 0.06) 0.4
Physical examinationa
 Any symptom 2.68 (2.13–3.22) <0.001    0.33 (0.27–0.39) <0.001   
 Fever 2.86 (2.20–3.52) <0.001 2.7 (2.06–3.50) <0.001 0.26 (0.19–0.33) <0.001 0.22 (0.15–0.29) <0.001
 Positive malaria test 2.77 (2.25–3.29) <0.001 3.04 (2.47–3.61) <0.001 0.31 (0.26–0.37) <0.001 0.32 (0.26–0.38) <0.001
 Upper respiratory tract infection 0.6 (-0.07-1.3) 0.07 1.03 (0.23-1.82) 0.01 0.06 (-0.02-0.13) 0.1 0.08 (0.003-0.16) 0.04
 Lower respiratory tract infection 0.5 (-0.04-1.1) 0.07 0.67 (0.02–1.32) 0.04 0.1 (0.04–0.17) 0.002 0.16 (0.05–0.18) <0.001
 Diarrhoea 0.12 (-0.89-1.12) 0.8 0.78 (-0.39-1.96) 0.2 0.07 (-0.05-0.19) 0.2 0.14 (0.03 -0.26) 0.01
 Skinb 1.41 (0.20-2.62) 0. 02 1.64 (0.24-3.04) 0.02 0.15 (0.005-0.29) 0.04 0.14 (0.007-0.28) 0.04
 Earc 1.75 (-0.58-4.08) 0.1 0.7 (-1.97-3.46) 0.6 0.34 (0.06-0.61) 0.02 0.22 (-0.04-0.49) 0.1
Physical examinationa & maternal recall
 Any symptom 2.7 (2.09–3.31) <0.001    0.36 (0.29–0.42) <0.001   
  1. aMissing data: Maternal recall all symptoms (n = 9), fever (n = 1), malaria (n = 8), respiratory tract infection (n = 6), skin infections (n = 3), ear infections (n = 2)
  2. bincludes rash, infections, ulcer
  3. cincludes discharge, pain and other
  4. dSince it is not possible to take a logarithm of zero, nine CRP values that were equal to zero were replaced with smallest number in the dataset, that is 0.01
  5. eEstimates are back-transformed mean differences
  6. fMultivariate models for maternal recall included fever, diarrhoea, cough and vomiting as predictors. Multivariate models for physical examination included fever, positive malaria test, respiratory tract infection, diarrhoea, skin and ear infections as predictors. All models are adjusted for age and sex
  7. gAdjusted R2 was 0.053 and 0.112 for the multivariate models using maternal recall data and physical examination data, respectively
  8. hAdjusted R2 was 0.103 and 0.152 for the multiple regression using recall data and physical examination data, respectively