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Table 2 Association risk factors with anemia in non-pregnant women

From: Concerning public health situation of under-nutrition in children and anemia in women in Indian Sundarbans delta: a community based cross-sectional investigation

Exposure variables Hb > =120
n = 392 (%)
Hb < 120
n = 698 (%)
OR (95 % CI of OR) p-value
Durbachati + Ramganga + Gopalnagar (villages) 117 (29) 286 (71) 1.66 (1.22–2.26) 0.001
Daskhinraypur (village) 143 (40) 218 (60) 0.03 (0.76–1.40) 0.814
Sreenarayanpur Purnachandrapur (village) 132 (41) 194 (59) Reference
Muslim 40 (43) 54 (57) 0.73 (0.48–1.13) 0.165
Hindu 352 (35) 644 (65) Reference
Never attended school 78 (30) 180 70) 1.39 (1.03–1.88) 0.029
Ever attended school 314 (38) 518 (62) Reference
Number of children > 2 120 (30) 287 (70) 1.58 (1.21–2.05) 0.001
Number of children ≤ 2 272 (40) 411 (60) Reference
Women not involved in income generation activities 371 (36) 657 (64) 0.91 (0.53–1.56) 0.721
Women involved in income generation activities 21 (34) 41 (66) Reference
Age >34 years 78 (27) 210 (73) 1.87 (1.11–3.15) 0.083
>29 & ≤34 years 59 (34) 113 (66) 1.33 (0.76–2.31) 0.180
>24 & ≤29 years 87 (39) 134 (61) 1.07 (0.63–1.81) 0.623
>19 & ≤24 years 136 (41) 195 (59) 0.99 (0.60–1.64) 0.992
≤19 years 32 (41) 46 (59) Reference
BMI < 18.5 kg/m2 81 (30) 185 (70) 1.38 (1.03–1.86) 0.032
≥18.5 kg/m2 311 (38) 513 (62) Reference
Intake polished rice 5 (33) 10 (67) 1.12 (0.38–3.31) 0.83
Intake per boiled rice 387 (36) 688 (64) Reference
Green vegetables intake frequency - Nil 1 (13) 7 (87) 4.46 (0.56–38.53) 1.55
2–4 days in a month 86 (37) 144 (63) 1.11 (0.75–1.66) 0.60
2–3 days in week 230 (35) 434 (65) 1.25 (0.90–1.75) 0.18
Almost every day 75 (40) 113 (60) Reference
Pulse intake frequency - Nil 21 (35) 39 (65) 0.92 (0.46–1.88) 0.83
2–4 days in a month 148 (37) 252 (63) 0.85 (0.51–1.39) 0.52
2–3 days in week 195 (36) 351 (64) 0.90 (0.55–1.46) 0.67
Almost every day 28 (33) 56 (67)
Lemon intake frequency with meal- Nil 207 (36) 375 (64) 0.74 (0.30–1.81) 0.51
2–4 days in a month 152 (39) 238 (61) 0.64 (0.26–1.59) 0.34
2–3 days in week 25 (27) 68 (73) 1.12 (0.41–3.02) 0.82
Almost every day 8 (32) 17 (68) Reference
Egg intake frequency - Nil 28 (29) 70 (71) 1.42 (0.51–4.02) 0.49
2–4 days in a month 287 (36) 504 (64) 1.02 (0.39–2.63) 0.96
2–3 days in week 70 (38) 112 (62) 0.94 (0.35–2.50) 0.90
Almost every day 7 (37) 12 (63) Reference
Fish intake frequency - Nil 2 (33) 4 (67) 1.20 (0.21–6.62) 0.83
2–4 days in a month 61 (35) 112 (65) 1.10 (0.76–1.58) 0.59
2–3 days in week 159 (35) 299 (65) 1.13 (0.86–1.48) 0.38
Almost every day 170 (38) 283 (62) Reference
Chicken intake frequency - Nil 22 (34) 42 (66) 1.10 (0.18–6.50) 0.91
2–4 days in a month 361 (36) 461 (64) 0.88 (0.16–4.85) 0.88
2–3 days in week 8 (42) 11 (58) 0.61 (0.90–4.13) 0.61
Almost every day 1 (20) 4 (80) Reference
Animal meat (other than chicken) intake frequency - Nil 296 (35) 556 (65) 0.93 (0.17–5.15) 0.94
2–4 days in a month 93 (40) 137 (60) 0.73 (0.13–4.10) 0.72
2–3 days in week 1 (50) 1 (50) 0.50 (0.50–12.89) 0.67
Almost every day 2 (33) 4 (67) Reference
Milk intake frequency - Nil 66 (34) 126 (66) 0.88 (0.58–1.32) 0.53
2–4 days in a month 217 (37) 361 (63) 0.78 (0.56–1.08) 0.13
2–3 days in week 35 (40) 53 (60) 0.70 (0.42–1.17) 0.18
Almost every day 74 (32) 158 (68) Reference
Fruits intake frequency - Nil 68 (38) 109 (62) 0.49 (0.18–1.28) 0.14
2–4 days in a month 276 (36) 495 (64) 0.53 (0.21–1.34) 0.18
2–3 days in week 42 (36) 74 (64) 0.53 (0.20–1.43) 0.21
Almost every day 6 (23) 20 (77) Reference
Germinated gram intake frequency - Nil 312 (36) 546 (64) 0.41 (0.15–1.11) 0.08
2–4 days in a month 54 (39) 85 (61) 0.37 (0.13–1.06) 0.06
2–3 days in week 21 (31) 46 (69) 0.49 (0.16–1.49) 0.21
Almost every day 5 (19) 21 (81) Reference
Drinking water storage in wide mouth container 291 (36) 524 (64) 0.95 (0.72–1.27) 0.95
Drinking water storage in narrow mouth container 101 (37) 174 (63) Reference
Draw drinking water by dipping a pot in water storage vessels 9 (53) 8 (47) 0.49 (0.18–1.28) 0.14
Draw drinking water by pouring water from storage vessels 383 (36) 690 (64) Reference
Pond/Well/ other water used for washing utensils 329 (36) 573 (63) 0.88 (0.63–1.22) 0.44
Tubewell/Piped water used for washing utensils 63 (34) 125 (66) Reference  
Open air defecation 208 (34) 396 (66) 1.16 (0.91–1.49) 0.24
Use Sanitary toilet/Pakka toilet 184 (38) 302 (62) Reference
Used water/mud/ash for washing hand after defecation 155 (35) 282 (65) 1.037 (0.80–1.33) 0.78
Use soap for hand wash after defecation 237 (36) 416 (64) Reference
Does not use any contraceptive method for family planning 93 (30) 220 (70) 2.02 (1.50–2.78) <0.001
Contraceptive method apart from Oral pills 93 (28) 240 (72) 2.23 (1.64–3.02) <0.001
Oral pills contraceptive method used for family planning 206 (46) 238 (54) Reference