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Table 3 Longitudinal Analysis of Stunting Malnutrition, by Child’s Age of Entry into Intervention

From: Early childhood caries and malnutrition: baseline and two-year follow-up results of a community-based prevention intervention in Rural Ecuador

Number (%) Children with Stunting Malnutrition, HAZ < −2Z
Baseline (2011) Follow-up (2013) Observed change
Child age of entry and at exam HAZ < −2 Z Age at exam HAZ < −2 Z Absolute change Proportional changea P-Value Observed Changeb
<1 year 7 (36.8%) 2 years 8 (47.1%) +10.3% +28.0% 0.688
0.414
1 year 13 (40.6%) 3 years 6 (18.6%) −22.0% −54.2% 0.065
0.035
2 years 19 (61.3%) 4 years 11 (42.3%) −19.0% −31.0% 0.180
0.096
3 years 18 (40.0%) 5 years 10 (25.0%) −15.0% −37.5% 0.070
0.034
4 years 9 (29.0%) 6 years 5 (16.7%) −12.3% −42.4% 0.453
0.257
Total 0–4 years 66 (41.0%) 2–6 years 40 (24.8%) −16.2% −39.5% 0.005
0.003
  1. aCalculated by dividing the change in prevalence by the baseline prevalence and expressing it as a percentage
  2. bP-values presented are based on McNemar test (first) and Cochran’s Q test (second)