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Table 5 Results of multivariable logistic regression analysis showing determinants of malnutrition

From: Prevalence and associated factors of malnutrition among children under-five years in Sindh, Pakistan: a cross-sectional study

Variables Stunting Wasting Under-weight All three outcomes
OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value
Gender
 Boys 1.30 (1.14–1.49) <0.0001 1.20 (1.01–1.43) 0.039 1.09 (0.95–1.25) 0.206 1.29 (1.02–1.65) 0.037
 Girls Ref.        
Age
  < 6 months Ref.        
 6–11 months 1.93 (1.49–2.51) <0.0001 1.43 (1.03–1.99) 0.033 1.39 (1.06–1.81) <0.0001 3.17 (1.72–5.85) <0.0001
 12–23 months 4.93 (3.86–6.30) <0.0001 1.41 (1.03–1.94) 0.032 2.64 (2.07–3.38) <0.0001 4.99 (2.79–8.90) <0.0001
 24–35 months 5.66 (4.45–7.20) <0.0001 1.93 (1.43–2.60) 0.000 4.30 (3.39–5.47) <0.0001 4.23 (2.37–7.53) <0.0001
 36–47 months 6.90 (5.21–9.13) <0.0001 1.30 (0.91–1.87) 0.151 4.17 (3.16–5.49) <0.0001 3.96 (2.11–7.43) <0.0001
 48–59 months 2.99 (2.19–4.10) <0.0001 1.15 (0.75–1.77) 0.516 2.51 (1.82–3.45) <0.0001 2.30 (1.09–4.85) 0.029
Mother’s education
 No formal education 0.93 (0.62–1.40) 0.730 0.94 (0.53–1.70) 0.847 0.72 (0.48–1.09) 0.121 0.97 (0.42–2.22) 0.936
 Primary 0.74 (0.47–1.15) 0.180 0.71 (0.37–1.36) 0.300 0.55 (0.35–0.86) 0.010 0.61 (0.23–1.57) 0.302
 Secondary /Higher Ref.        
Parity
 1 Ref.        
 2 1.07 (0.92–1.26) 0.378 1.01 (0.83–1.23) 0.936 1.19 (1.02–1.40) 0.029 0.97 (0.73–1.28) 0.823
 3 1.24 (0.93–1.65) 0.137 1.00 (0.69–1.45) 0.987 1.41 (1.06–1.88) 0.018 1.23 (0.75–2.01) 0.412
  > 4 1.41 (0.81–2.46) 0.221 0.87 (0.40–1.91) 0.733 1.16 (0.65–2.06) 0.623 0.97 (0.33–2.87) 0.961
Family size
 1–5 Ref.        
 6–10 1.04 (0.90–1.20) 0.594 0.99 (0.82–1.19) 0.883 0.97 (0.84–1.12) 0.663 0.95 (0.74–1.23) 0.725
  > 10 1.02 (0.79–1.33) 0.862 1.16 (0.83–1.62) 0.391 1.00 (0.77–1.30) 0.987 1.13 (0.72–1.80) 0.590
Wealth quintiles
 Lowest 1.49 (1.18–1.88) 0.001 2.33 (1.69–3.21) <0.0001 2.18 (1.72–2.77) <0.0001 2.31 (1.47–3.64) <0.0001
 Second 1.52 (1.20–1.91) 0.000 2.01 (1.45–2.77) <0.0001 2.11 (1.66–2.68) <0.0001 2.07 (1.31–3.27) 0.002
 Middle 1.37 (1.09–1.73) 0.006 1.74 (1.26–2.41) <0.0001 1.73 (1.36–2.19) <0.0001 1.82 (1.15–2.88) 0.010
 Fourth 1.30 (1.04–1.62) 0.022 1.40 (1.01–1.94) <0.0001 1.67 (1.32–2.10) <0.0001 1.45 (0.91–2.31) 0.115
 Highest Ref.        
Morbidity
 Diarrhea 1.13 (0.97–1.33) 0.124 1.18 (0.97–1.45) 0.099 1.36 (1.16–1.59) <0.0001 1.27 (0.97–1.67) 0.084
 ARI 0.99 (0.82–1.19) 0.883 0.94 (0.74–1.19) 0.617 0.98 (0.82–1.19) 0.871 0.84 (0.60–1.17) 0.306