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Table 1 Cross-classification of types of malnutrition by Socio-demographic factors

From: Different forms of malnutrition among under five children in Bangladesh: a cross sectional study on prevalence and determinants

Background Characteristics Stunting Wasting Underweight
Stunted Not Stunted Wasted Not Wasted Under weight Not Underweight
Age (in months) <6 87 (14.2%) 525 (85.8%) 138 (22.6%) 473 (77.4%) 112 (18.3%) 499 (81.7%)
6–8 65 (16.5%) 329 (83.5%) 65 (16.5%) 329 (83.5%) 71 (18.0%) 323 (82.0%)
9–11 100 (22.9%) 337 (77.1%) 89 (20.4%) 348 (79.6%) 110 (25.1%) 328 (74.9%)
12–17 262 (32.3%) 549 (67.7%) 146 (18.0%) 665 (82.0%) 230 (28.4%) 581 (71.6%)
18–23 357 (48.0%) 386 (52.0%) 93 (12.5%) 650 (87.5%) 259 (34.8%) 485 (65.2%)
24–35 574 (40.3%) 849 (59.7%) 190 (13.4%) 1232 (86.6%) 527 (37.0%) 896 (63.0%)
36–47 632 (45.2%) 766 (54.8%) 164 (11.7%) 1233 (88.3%) 521 (37.3%) 876 (62.7%)
48–59 537 (38.7%) 852 (61.3%) 192 (13.8%) 1196 (86.2%) 529 (38.1%) 859 (61.9%)
χ2  = 341.334 df = 7 χ2  = 63.748 df = 7 χ2  = 159.735 df = 7
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000
Sex Male 1374 (36.6%) 2378 (63.4%) 593 (15.8%) 3159 (84.2%) 1203 (32.1%) 2549 (67.9%)
Female 1240 (35.9%) 2214 (64.1%) 485 (14.0%) 2969 (86.0%) 1156 (33.5%) 2298 (66.5%)
χ2  = 0.403 df = 1 χ2  = 4.395 df = 1 χ2  = 1.613 df = 1
p-value = 0.271 p-value = 0.019 p-value = 0.107
Place of Residence Urban 554 (30.5%) 1264 (69.5%) 238 (13.1%) 1581 (86.9%) 483 (26.6%) 1335 (73.4%)
Rural 2060 (38.2%) 3328 (61.8%) 841 (15.6%) 4546 (84.4%) 1876 (34.8%) 3512 (65.2%)
χ2  = 35.411 df = 1 χ2  = 6.823 df = 1 χ2  = 42.021 df = 1
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.005 p-value = 0.000
Division Barisal 160 (38.5%) 256 (61.5%) 80 (19.2%) 337 (80.8%) 151 (36.3%) 243 (57.0%)
Chittagong 588 (38.4%) 943 (61.6%) 250 (16.3%) 1282 (83.7%) 546 (35.6%) 1110 (62.3%)
Dhaka 866 (34.2%) 1668 (65.8%) 317 (12.5%) 2216 (87.5%) 728 (28.7%) 1677 (70.6%)
Khulna 156 (28.3%) 395 (71.7%) 80 (14.5%) 471 (85.5%) 145 (26.3%) 457 (62.2%)
Rajshahi 226 (30.2%) 522 (69.8%) 136 (18.2%) 611 (81.8%) 244 (32.6%) 672 (67.2%)
Rangpur 273 (37.8%) 450 (62.2%) 129 (17.8%) 595 (82.2%) 266 (36.7%) 532 (63.9%)
Sylhet 345 (49.1%) 357 (50.9%) 87 (12.4%) 616 (87.6%) 279 (39.7%) 369 (62.3%)
χ2  = 86.690 df = 6 χ2  = 34.564 df = 6 χ2  = 57.872 df = 6
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000
Religion Muslim 2405 (36.5%) 4188 (63.5%) 999 (15.2%) 5594 (84.8%) 2158 (32.7%) 4435 (67.3%)
Others 209 (34.0%) 405 (66.0%) 80 (13.0%) 534 (87.0%) 201 (32.8%) 412 (67.2%)
χ2  = 1.446 df = 1 χ2  = 1.989 df = 1 χ2  = .001 df = 1
p-value = 0.123 p-value = 0.087 p-value = 0.505
Father’s Education Primary or below 1763 (43.8%) 2265 (56.2%) 628 (15.6%) 3400 (84.4%) 1558 (38.7%) 2470 (61.3%)
Secondary or Higher 851 (26.8%) 2327 (73.2%) 451 (14.2%) 2727 (85.8%) 801 (25.2%) 2377 (74.8%)
χ2  = 221.848 df = 1 χ2  = 2.733 df = 1 χ2  = 146.479 df = 1
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.052 p-value = 0.000
Mother’s Education Primary or below 1437 (45.0%) 1759 (55.0%) 498 (15.6%) 2699 (84.4%) 1279 (40.0%) 1918 (60.0%)
Secondary or Higher 1177 (29.4%) 2833 (70.6%) 581 (14.5%) 3429 (85.5%) 1080 (26.9%) 2930 (73.1%)
χ2  = 187.495 df = 1 χ2  = 1.655 df = 1 χ2  = 138.083 df = 1
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.105 p-value = 0.000
Father’s Occupation Physical labor 1970 (39.4%) 3030 (60.6%) 767 (15.3%) 4233 (84.7%) 1733 (34.7%) 3267 (65.3%)
Service/business 585 (29.2%) 1418 (70.8%) 289 (14.4%) 1715 (85.6%) 568 (28.3%) 1436 (71.7%)
Others 59 (29.2%) 143 (70.8%) 23 (11.3%) 180 (88.7%) 58 (28.7%) 144 (71.3%)
χ2  = 68.780 df = 2 χ2  = 3.125 df = 2 χ2  = 27.451 df = 2
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.210 p-value = 0.000
Mother’s Occupation Physical labor 725 (42.0%) 1002 (58.0%) 288 (16.7%) 1439 (83.3%) 690 (39.9%) 1038 (60.1%)
Service/business 85 (30.1%) 197 (69.9%) 43 (15.2%) 240 (84.8%) 79 (27.9%) 204 (72.1%)
Others 1804 (34.7%) 3392 (65.3%) 748 (14.4%) 4448 (85.6%) 1591 (30.6%) 3606 (69.4%)
χ2  = 34.347 df = 2 χ2  = 5.307 df = 2 χ2  = 54.232 df = 2
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.070 p-value = 0.000
Mother’s BMI (weight/height2) Under weight 691Z (43.0%) 916 (57.0%) 310 (19.3%) 1297 (80.7%) 722 (44.9%) 885 (55.1%)
Normal weight 1622 (37.9%) 2658 (62.1%) 645 (15.1%) 3635 (84.9%) 1380 (32.2%) 2901 (67.8%)
Overweight/obese 301 (22.8%) 1018 (77.2%) 123 (9.3%) 1196 (90.7%) 257 (19.5%) 1062 (80.5%)
χ2  = 139.600 df = 2 χ2  = 56.650 df = 2 χ2  = 214.179 df = 2
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000
Wealth Index Poorest 811 (49.6%) 824 (50.4%) 286 (17.5%) 1561 (85.6%) 731 (44.7%) 905 (55.3%)
Poorer 573 (42.2%) 785 (57.8%) 233 (17.2%) 1304 (83.0%) 526 (38.7%) 832 (61.3%)
Middle 523 (36.7%) 904 (63.3%) 190 (13.3%) 1249 (82.6%) 463 (32.5%) 963 (67.5%)
Richer 447 (31.1%) 989 (68.9%) 198 (13.8%) 1249 (83.6%) 395 (27.5%) 1041 (72.5%)
Richest 259 (19.2%) 1091 (80.8%) 172 (12.7%) 1145 (85.3%) 244 (18.1%) 1106 (81.9%)
χ2  = 333.376 df = 4 χ2  = 23.090 df = 4 χ2  = 277.887 df = 4
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.000
Source of Drinking Water Unsafe 278 (35.5%) 504 (64.5%) 120 (15.4%) 661 (84.6%) 253 (32.4%) 528 (67.6%)
Safe 2336 (36.4%) 4089 (63.6%) 959 (14.9%) 5466 (85.1%) 2106 (32.8%) 4319 (67.2%)
χ2  = 0.197 df = 1 χ2  = 0.105 df = 1 χ2  = 0.047 df = 1
p-value = 0.344 p-value = 0.390 p-value = 0.432
Toilet Facility Hygienic 2167 (35.4%) 3949 (64.6%) 906 (14.8%) 5210 (85.2%) 1955 (32.0%) 4160 (68.0%)
Unhygienic 448 (41.1%) 643 (58.9%) 173 (15.9%) 918 (84.1%) 404 (37.0%) 687 (63.0%)
χ2  = 12.701 df = 1 χ2  = 0.792 df = 1 χ2  = 10.764 df = 1
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.199 p-value = 0.001
No. of Living Children 1–2 1655 (33.4%) 3307 (66.6%) 756 (15.2%) 4205 (84.8%) 1507 (30.4%) 3455 (69.6%)
3–11 960 (42.8%) 1285 (57.2%) 323 (14.4%) 1922 (85.6%) 852 (38.0%) 1393 (62.0%)
χ2  = 59.179 df = 1 χ2  = 0.880 df = 1 χ2  = 40.336 df = 1
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.184 p-value = 0.000
Birth Order 1–2 1659 (33.6%) 3273 (66.4%) 740 (15.0%) 4192 (85.0%) 1507 (30.6%) 3425 (69.4%)
3 or more 955 (42.0%) 1320 (58.0%) 339 (14.9%) 1935 (85.1%) 852 (37.5%) 1422 (62.5%)
χ2  = 46.854 df = 1 χ2  = 0.011 df = 1 χ2  = 33.763 df = 1
p-value = 0.000 p-value = 0.473 p-value = 0.000