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Table 4 Serum concentrations (mean and 95% CI) of biomarkers by quintiles of dietary pattern scores among boys

From: Associations between dietary patterns and biomarkers of nutrient status and cardiovascular risk factors among adolescents in Germany: results of the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents in Germany (KiGGS)

Dietary pattern ‘Western’ ‘Traditional’ ‘Healthy’
  Q1 (lowest) Q3 Q5 (highest) P Q1 (lowest) Q3 Q5 (highest) P Q1 (lowest) Q3 Q5 (highest) P
Folate 1 (ng/ml)a,b 10 9.5 9.4 0.456 10.8 9.5 8.8 0.01 9.2 9.8 10.5 0.013
N = 1364 (9.1–11.0) (8.6–10.5) (8.4–10.4)   (9.9–11.6) (8.7–10.4) (7.8–9.8)   (8.3–10.1) (8.9–10.6) (9.5–11.4)  
Folate 2 (ng/ml)a,b 7.8 7.3 7.6 0.285 8.7 7.4 7.6 0.097 7.3 8.3 7.7 0.639
N = 778 (7.0–8.7) (6.4–8.3) (6.6–8.6)   (7.6–9.7) (6.9–8.0) (6.7–8.6)   (6.1–8.5) (7.4–9.3) (7.1–8.4)  
Vitamin B12 (ng/l)a,b 504 499 470 0.294 475 497 470 0.061 474 483 493 0.025
N = 2151 (482–526) (476–522) (446–495)   (455–496) (477–517) (445–496)   (449–499) (463–502) (475–511)  
Ferritin (μg/l)a,c 47.9 47.7 43.1 0.106 44.8 45.4 48.8 0.687 46.8 43.7 48.0 0.246
N = 2237 (45.1–50.7) (44.9–50.4) (40.3–45.8)   (41.0–48.6) (42.8–47.9) (44.8–52.9)   (44.0–49.6) (41.2–46.1) (44.3–51.7)  
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)d,e 117.2 117 116 0.116 116 117 117 0.332 116 118 118 0.262
N = 2297 (116–118) (116–118) (115–118)   (115–118) (116–119) (116–119)   (115–117) (117–119) (116–119)  
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)d,e 69.2 68.6 67.7 0.014 68.2 69.1 69.2 0.374 68.3 69.4 68.9 0.215
N = 2297 (68.4–70.1) 67.7–69.6) 66.6–68.8)   (67.4–69.0) (68.4–69.9) (68.0–70.4)   (67.5–69.0) (68.7–70.2) (67.9–69.9)  
Total Cholesterol (mg/dl)d 156 158 156 0.927 155 157 157 0.825 156 155.6 156.7 0.984
N = 2307 (153–160) 154–161) (152–159)   (152–158) (154–160) (154–161)   (153–159) (153–158) (154–160)  
HDL-C (mg/dl)d 53.2 53.5 54.6 0.613 54.1 53.8 53.4 0.766 53.9 53.5 52.9 0.029
N = 2307 (51,9–54,5) (52.2–54.7) (53.4–55.8)   (52.9–55.4) (52.5–55.2) (52.0–54.8)   (52.6–55.1) (52.3–54.6) (51.7–54.2)  
LDL-C (mg/dl)d 87.4 88 87.5 0.981 86.4 88 88.4 0.826 86.9 87.4 87.8 0.991
N = 2308 (84.5–90.2) (85.0–91.0) (84.5–90.5)   (83.7–89.0) (85.5–90.4) (85.5–91.4)   (84.5–89.2) (84.9–89.8) (85.1–90.5)  
Homocysteine (μmol/l)a 8.6 9.3 9.0 0.025 9 9 9.2 0.834 9.3 9.1 8.5 0.002
N = 2305 (8.2–8.9) (8.6–10.0) (8.5–9.6)   (8.4–9.6) (8.6–9.5) (8.5–9.8)   (8.8–9.9) (8.6–9.7) (8.0–9.0)  
Uric acid (mg/dl)a 5.4 5.4 5.4 0.488 5.3 5.4 5.4 0.547 5.5 5.4 5.5 0.323
N = 2315 (5.2–5.5) (5.3–5.6) (5.2–5.6)   (5.2–5.5) (5.2–5.5) (5.2–5.7)   (5.3–5.6) (5.3–5.5) (5.3–5.7)  
HbA1c (%)a,f 4.9 4.9 4.9 0.885 4.9 4.9 4.9 0.467 4.9 4.9 4.9 0.955
N = 2306 (4.8–5.0) (4.8–5.0) (4.8–5.0)   (4.8–5.0) (4.8–5.0) (4.8–5.0)   (4.8–5.0) (4.8–5.0) (4.8–5.0)  
  1. Abbreviations: CI Confidence interval, HbA1c Glycohaemoglobin, HDL-C High density lipoprotein cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol
  2. aadjusted for age (years), physical acitivty hours per week (continuous), smoking status (yes/no), regular acohol consumption (yes/no), and total energy intake (continous)
  3. bwithout persons with vitamin supplement use
  4. cwithout persons with mineral supplement use
  5. dadjusted for age (years), physical acitivty hours per week (continuous), smoking status (yes/no), regular acohol consumption (yes/no), and total energy intake (continous) and BMI in kg/m2
  6. ewithout persons with cardiovascular medication
  7. fwithout persons with diabetes or diabetes medication
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