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Table 4 Factors associated with under-nutrition among HIV-positive adults enrolled in ART clinics in Zimbabwe

From: Malnutrition status and associated factors among HIV-positive patients enrolled in ART clinics in Zimbabwe

Characteristic n (%) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Area
 Urban 58 (11.0) reference reference
 Rural 64 (9.2) 0.82 (0.56; 1.19) 0.87 (0.57; 1.32)
Sex
 Male 66 (17.1) reference reference
 Female 56 (6.7) 0.35 (0.24; 0.51) 0.31 (0.20; 0.47)
Age in years
 15–24 10 (20.4) reference reference
 25–34 29 (10.4) 0.45 (0.2; 1) 0.50 (0.21; 1.20)
 35–44 37 (8.0) 0.34 (0.16; 0.74) 0.34 (0.15; 0.80)
 45–54 46 (10.7) 0.47 (0.22; 1.02) 0.43 (0.19; 0.99)
Received Food aid
 No 102 (9.5) reference reference
 Yes 20 (14.1) 1.57 (0.94; 2.63) 1.36 (0.77; 2.39)
Had difficulty accessing food in the past 30 days
 No 72 (8.6) reference reference
 Yes 50 (13.0) 1.59 (1.08; 2.33) 1.67 (1.10; 2.55)
Experienced diarrhoea in the past 2 weeks
 No 97 (9.2) Reference reference
 Yes 25 (15.6) 1.84 (1.14; 2.96) 1.49 (0.89; 2.52)
ART status and duration in years
 Pre-ART 11 (12.5) Reference reference
  < 1 33 (13.5) 1.09 (0.53; 2.27) 0.75 (0.41; 1.39)
 1–2 28 (9.3) 0.72 (0.34; 1.51) 0.65 (0.34; 1.21)
 3–4 27 (8.1) 0.62 (0.29; 1.3) 0.74 (0.36; 1.54)
 5–6 16 (9.9) 0.77 (0.34; 1.73) 0.56 (0.21; 1.45)
  > 6 7 (7.7) 0.58 (0.22; 1.58) 1.26 (0.57; 2.81)
History of TB treatment
 No 75 (8.5) Reference reference
 Yes 47 (13.9) 1.74 (1.18; 2.56) 1.30 (0.84; 2.01)
Current WHO stage
 I/II 28 (6.1) Reference reference
 III/IV 72 (12.6) 2.2 (1.4; 3.47) 2.25 (1.34; 3.77)
Current CD4 cell counta
  ≤ 50 8 (30.8) reference reference
 51–200 10 (13.5) 0.35 (0.12; 1.02) 0.47 (0.14; 1.51)
 201–350 8 (11.0) 0.28 (0.09; 0.84) 0.43 (0.13; 1.45)
  ≥ 350 18 (10.4) 0.26 (0.10; 0.69) 0.53 (0.18; 1.56)
  1. OR odds ratio, aOR multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, ART antiretroviral therapy, TB Tuberculosis, WHO World Health Organization
  2. aCurrent CD4 cell count was taken as a CD4 cell count obtained with 6 months from date of data collection
  3. NB: All odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in bold font are statistically significant with p-values <0.05