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Table 5 Factors associated with over-nutrition among HIV-infected adults enrolled in ART clinics in Zimbabwe

From: Malnutrition status and associated factors among HIV-positive patients enrolled in ART clinics in Zimbabwe

Characteristic n (%) OR (95% CI) aOR (95% CI)
Area
 Urban 163 (31.0) reference reference
 Rural 159 (22.9) 0.66 (0.51–0.85) 0.9 (0.66–1.25)
Sex
 Male 51 (13.2) reference reference
 Female 271 (32.5) 3.16 (2.28–4.39) 3.86 (2.72–5.48)
Age in years
 15–24 9 (18.4) reference reference
 25–34 70 (25.1) 1.49 (0.69–3.22) 1.48 (0.65–3.36)
 35–44 118 (25.6) 1.53 (0.72–3.25) 1.60 (0.72–3.56)
  ≥ 45 125 (29.0) 1.82 (0.86–3.85) 2.24 (1.01–5.04)
Wealth quintile
 Lowest 36 (14.5) reference reference
 Second 65 (25.9) 2.06 (1.31–3.23) 2.07 (1.29–3.33)
 Middle 60 (24.9) 1.95 (1.23–3.09) 1.94 (1.19–3.17)
 Fourth 79 (34.5) 3.10 (1.99–4.85) 3.15 (1.91–5.18)
 Highest 82 (32.7) 2.86 (1.84–4.44) 2.84 (1.66–4.86)
Household Food consumption score
 Poor (0–21) 7 (24.1) reference reference
 Borderline (21.5–35) 55 (21.2) 0.85 (0.34–2.09) 0.92 (0.36–2.37)
 Acceptable (>35) 260 (27.9) 1.22 (0.51–2.88) 1.06 (0.43–2.64)
Had difficulty accessing food in the past 30 days
 No 229 (27.4) reference reference
 Yes 93 (24.2) 0.85 (0.64–1.12) 0.85 (0.62–1.16)
Household Income compared to PDL
 above PDL 47 (36.2) reference reference
 Below PDL 238 (25.7) 0.61 (0.41–0.9) 0.84 (0.52–1.35)
Household Income compared to FPL
 above FPL 40 (40.4) reference reference
 below FPL 282 (25.2) 0.5 (0.32–0.76) 0.52 (0.31–0.87)
Duration on ART in years
 Pre-ART 20 (22.7) reference reference
  < 1 57 (23.4) 1.13 (0.76–1.67) 0.92 (0.59–1.45)
 1–2 77 (25.6) 1.25 (0.85–1.83) 1.04 (0.67–1.63)
 3–4 92 (27.5) 1.26 (0.80–1.99) 0.91 (0.54–1.54)
 5–6 45 (27.8) 1.70 (1.00–2.87) 1.12 (0.61–2.04)
  > 6 31 (34.1) 0.96 (0.54–1.72) 0.85 (0.45–1.59)
Current WHO stage
 I/II 132 (29.0) reference reference
 III/IV 143 (25.0) 0.82 (0.62–1.08) 0.89 (0.65–1.20)
Current CD4 cell counta
  ≤ 50 2 (7.7) reference reference
 51–200 10 (13.5) 1.87 (0.38–9.19) 1.66 (0.32–8.62)
 201–350 21 (28.8) 4.85 (1.05–22.36) 4.51 (0.92–22.15)
  > 350 58 (33.5) 6.05 (1.38–26.5) 4.85 (1.03–22.77)
  1. OR odds ratio, aOR multivariate-adjusted odds ratio, CI confidence interval, HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus, ART antiretroviral therapy, PDL poverty datum line, FPL food poverty line, WHO World Health Organization
  2. aCurrent CD4 cell count was taken as a CD4 cell count obtained with 6 months from date of data collection
  3. NB: All odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals in bold font are statistically significant with p-values <0.05