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Table 3 Crude Associations between beverages intake frequencies and coronary heart disease in adults, Ages 45–59 y – NHANES 2003–2006

From: Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent coronary heart disease, in U.S. adults, ages 45–59 y

  Logistic Regression
Coronary Heart Diseasea Crude OR 95% CI p-value
tEFFb (ndSoda, FD, AJ), n=1359
 apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------   
 apprx 1–4 times /wk 1.46 0.70–3.01 0.301
 5 times or more /wk. 2.61 1.11–6.11 0.029
n = 1359
Non-diet soft drinks, n=1359
 apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------   
 apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.88 0.40–1.94 0.747
 5 times or more /wk. 2.44 1.18–5.04 0.013
n = 1359
Diet soda, n=1273
 apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------   
 apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.55 0.22–1.36 0.188
 5 times or more /wk. 0.70 0.35–1.40 0.300
n = 1273
Diet fruit drinks, n=978
 apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------   
 apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.19 0.02–1.54 0.115
 5 times or more /wk. 0.91 0.26–3.20 0.882
n = 978
Orange juice, n=1359
 apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------   
 apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.46 0.20–1.03 0.060
 5 times or more /wk. 0.79 0.41–1.53 0.474
n = 1359
  1. aCoronary heart disease (CHD) is defined as self-reported current or history of doctor diagnosed CHD and/ or angina pectoris [36]. btEFF refers to total excess free fructose beverages intake which includes any combination of high excess free fructose beverages for the NHANES period of 2003–2006 [35, 36], including average daily intake of caffeinated and caffeine-free non-diet soft drinks (ndSoda); non-diet fruit drinks (FD); and naturally high excess free fructose apple juice (AJ) [35, 36]. In 2003–2006 [the NHANES study period], high fructose corn syrup was the main sweetener in US soft drinks [31]. Crude OR's were considered statistically significant if the 95% confidence intervals did not include 1 and p values were <0.05, as indicated by italics