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Table 4 Associations between beverages intake frequencies and coronary heart disease in adults, ages 45–59 y – NHANES 2003–2006

From: Intake of high fructose corn syrup sweetened soft drinks, fruit drinks and apple juice is associated with prevalent coronary heart disease, in U.S. adults, ages 45–59 y

Coronary Heart Diseasec Multivariable Logistic Regression Multivariable Logistic Regression
ratio 95% CI p-value ratio 95% CI p-value
  aOR – adjusted for sex, race, age, BMI, SES, smoking, history of smoking, physical activity, total energy intake, total fruit and vegetable intake, hypertension, health insurance coverage bOR – further adjusted for pre-diabetes, diabetes, glycated hemoglobin (A1C)
tEFFd (ndSoda, FD, AJ) n = 1230 n = 1209
apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------    Reference -------   
apprx 1–4 times /wk 1.64 0.79–3.43 0.152 1.91 0.91–4.03 0.087
5 times or more /wk. 2.34 1.01–5.40 0.047 2.82 1.16–6.84 0.023
  aOR bOR
Non-diet soft drinks n=1228 n = 1207 n = 1207  
apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------    Reference -------   
apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.98 0.48–1.99 0.949 1.12 0.48–2.99 0.746
5 times or more /wk. 2.01 1.01–4.00 0.048 2.18 1.12–4.23 0.023
  aOR bOR
Diet soda n = 1153    n = 1132   
apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------    Reference -------   
apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.49 0.18–1.31 0.149 0.39 0.12–1.31 0.125
5 times or more /wk. 0.79 0.36–1.74 0.541 0.56 0.23–1.38 0.197
  aOR bOR
Diet fruit drinks n = 881    n = 867   
apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------    Reference -------   
apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.18 0.02–1.46 0.105 0.15 0.02–1.36 0.089
5 times or more /wk. 0.96 0.31–2.97 0.943 0.09 0.19–1.95 0.392
  aOR bOR
Orange juice n = 1230    n = 1207   
apprx ≤3 times /mo Reference -------    Reference -------   
apprx 1–4 times /wk 0.53 0.25–1.10 0.087 0.45 0.26–0.77 0.005
5 times or more /wk. 1.10 0.45–2.71 0.823 0.96 0.36–2.52 0.925
  1. aOdds Ratio (OR) – adjusted for sex, race, age, BMI, SES, smoking, history of smoking, diabetes, glycated hemoglobin (A1C), physical activity, total energy intake, total fruit and vegetable intake, hypertension, health insurance coverage; bOdds Ratio (OR) – further adjusted for pre-diabetes. cCoronary heart disease (CHD) is defined as self-reported current or history of doctor diagnosed CHD and/or angina pectoris [36]. dtEFF refers to total excess free fructose beverages intake which includes any combination of high excess free fructose beverages for the NHANES period of 2003–2006 [35, 36], including average daily intake of caffeinated and caffeine-free non-diet soft drinks (ndSoda); non-diet fruit drinks (FD); and naturally high excess free fructose apple juice (AJ) [35, 36]. In 2003–2006 [the NHANES study period], high fructose corn syrup was the main sweetener in US soft drinks [31]. Odds ratios were considered statistically significant if the 95% confidence intervals did not include 1 and values were <0.05, as indicated by italics