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Table 2 Participant characteristics and EHE lessons completed before and during the study by trial arm

From: Outcomes of a randomized controlled trial of nutrition education to promote farmers’ market fruit and vegetable purchases and consumption among women enrolled in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC)

  Trial arm  
  WFS WFSV EHE EHEV Total
Age, mean (SD) 28.83 (7.31) 29.25 (6.44) 28.89 (6.56) 28.91 (7.03) 28.97 (6.83)
Pregnancy status
 Not pregnant 162 (91%) 145 (75%) 151 (88%) 157 (78%) 615 (83%)
 Pregnant 16 (9%) 48 (25%) 21 (12%) 44 (22%) 129 (17%)
Breastfeeding status
 Not breastfeeding 149 (84%) 139 (72%) 147 (85%) 150 (75%) 585 (79%)
 Breastfeeding 29 (16%) 54 (28%) 25 (15%) 51 (25%) 159 (21%)
Race/ethnicity
 African American 59 (34%) 47 (25%) 47 (28%) 68 (34%) 221 (30%)
 Hispanic 103 (59%) 124 (64%) 99 (57%) 110 (55%) 436 (59%)
 White or other 9 (5%) 17 (9%) 22 (13%) 18 (9%) 66 (9%)
 Two or more races 4 (2%) 3 (2%) 3 (2%) 4 (2%) 14 (2%)
US-born
 No 73 (41%) 81 (42%) 60 (35%) 84 (42%) 298 (40%)
 Yes 105 (59%) 112 (58%) 112 (65%) 117 (58%) 446 (60%)
Preferred language
 English 126 (70%) 131 (68%) 130 (76%) 138 (69%) 525 (71%)
 Spanish 49 (28%) 62 (32%) 41 (23%) 59 (29%) 211 (28%)
 Other 3 (2%) -- 1 (1%) 4 (2%) 8 (1%)
Marital status
 Married 36 (20%) 48 (25%) 44 (26%) 43 (21%) 171 (23%)
 Separated 15 (8%) 23 (12%) 21 (12%) 23 (11%) 82 (11%)
 Widowed -- -- -- 1 (1%) 1 (1%)
 Never married 81 (46%) 81 (42%) 65 (37%) 82 (41%) 309 (41%)
 Divorced 14 (8%) 6 (3%) 10 (6%) 5 (3%) 35 (5%)
 Living with partner 32 (18%) 35 (18%) 32 (19%) 47 (23%) 146 (19%)
Educational attainment
 Less than high school education 33 (19%) 35 (18%) 31 (18%) 36 (18%) 135 (18%)
 High school diploma or equivalent 59 (33%) 59 (31%) 57 (33%) 64 (32%) 239 (32%)
 More than a high school education 86 (48%) 99 (51%) 84 (49%) 101 (50%) 370 (50%)
Educational attainment of spouse or partner
 Less than high school education 25 (18%) 30 (21%) 34 (26%) 29 (18%) 118 (21%)
 High school diploma or equivalent 67 (49%) 59 (42%) 55 (42%) 90 (55%) 271 (47%)
 More than a high school education 45 (33%) 53 (37%) 42 (32%) 45 (27%) 185 (32%)
 Number of children in household under 19 years of age, mean (SD) 2.04 (1.29) 2.21 (1.22) 2.06 (1.38) 2.19 (1.20) 2.13 (1.27)
 Number of other adults in household, mean (SD) 1.15 (1.08) .98 (1.05) 1.19 (1.11) 1.19 (.99) 1.12 (1.06)
Employment status
 Employed 76 (43%) 64 (33%) 76 (44%) 70 (35%) 286 (38%)
 Unemployed 102 (57%) 129 (67%) 96 (56%) 130 (65%) 457 (62%)
Receiving assistance other than WIC
 No 48 (27%) 54 (28%) 69 (40%) 55 (27%) 226 (30%)
 Yes 130 (73%) 139 (72%) 103 (60%) 146 (73%) 518 (70%)
Food insecure
 No 69 (39%) 96 (50%) 80 (47%) 92 (46%) 337 (45%)
 Yes 109 (61%) 97 (50%) 92 (53%) 109 (54%) 407 (55%)
 Social desirability trait, mean (SD) 7.94 (1.69) 7.74 (1.59) 7.66 (1.69) 7.66 (1.70) 7.74 (1.66)
Previously completed EHE lesson
 No 160 (90%) 162 (84%) 156 (91%) 175 (87%) 653 (88%)
 Yes 18 (10%) 31 (16%) 16 (9%) 26 (13%) 91 (12%)
EHE lesson completed during trial
 FV    59 (35%) 48 (24%) 107 (29%)
 Breastfeeding    28 (16%) 54 (27%) 82 (22%)
 Being active    33 (19%) 34 (17%) 67 (18%)
 Oral health    16 (10%) 22 (10%) 38 (10%)
 Cholesterol    12 (7%) 16 (8%) 28 (8%)
 Iron    11 (6%) 17 (9%) 28 (8%)
 Calcium    12 (7%) 10 (5%) 22 (5%)
  1. WIC indicates the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children; WFS WIC Fresh Start, WFSV WIC Fresh Start plus Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program vouchers; EHE online existing health education, EHEV online existing health education plus Farmers’ Market Nutrition Program vouchers. All values are reported as n (%) unless otherwise noted