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Table 2 Factors influencing CF

From: A systematic review of complementary feeding practices in South Asian infants and young children: the Bangladesh perspective

Family level
Promoters Study number Barriers Study number
Father’s occupation 1 study [6] Father’s occupation 1 study [6]
Mother with secondary or primary education 7 studies [6, 16, 23, 31, 38, 39, 45] Mother with poor education 9 studies [6, 21, 23, 35, 36, 38, 39, 45, 41]
Knowledge on appropriate CFP recommendations and benefits 3 studies [14, 32, 36] Father with poor education 1 study [6]
The practice of responsive feeding; applying the principles of psychosocial care during feeding e.g. strategies to overcome poor child appetite. 1 study [33] Lack of knowledge of CF 8 studies [14, 24, 26, 32, 35, 40, 42, 46]
Higher number of food groups consumed in maternal diet 2 studies [15, 16] Maternal death leading to fostering of child 1 study [42]
Education on health nutrition by health workers 1 study [35] Psychosocial care during feeding, Mothers’ strategies to overcome poor child appetite(e.g. force feed child refusing CF). 3 studies [26, 33, 40]
Mothers produced sufficient milk to feed baby for over 6 months 1 study [35] Limited engagement of mother with e.g. TV, radio, newspapers. 1 study [6]
Mother engages with media sources; newspapers, radio, TV 1 study [6] Cultural factors and taboos 3 studies [14, 26, 35]
Child in question is male 2 studies [26, 37] Family members influence CFP (Lack of support for appropriate CFP, advice, decision making, family dimensions etc.) 3 studies [14, 26, 35]
Child’s taste and behavioural response to appropriate CF given (e.g. perceived preference). 1 study [14] Higher maternal parity 3 studies [16, 36, 45]
  Maternal employment 2 studies [24, 36]
Perceived /actual inadequacy of Mother’s breast milk supply to breastfeed for 6 months. 5 studies [14, 24,25,26, 35]
Time allocation of mother to household chores /work reduces time to address CFP 4 studies [14, 24, 32, 36]
Child’s taste and behavioural response to CF given (e.g. refuses/doesn’t cry when certain foods offered) 2 studies [14, 35]
Illness of parent 2 studies [24, 32]
Organisational level
Promoters Study number Barriers Study number
Residence in urban area 2 studies [6, 41] Residence in rural area 3 studies [6, 45, 41]
Interventions (e.g. health and Nutrition educators) advocating and stimulating families to practice WHO recommendations on CFP 1 study [2] Bureaucratic policies on IYCF practices and outreach of information on appropriate CFP to public. 1 study [44]
Mother having higher number of antenatal check ups 3 studies [6, 45, 41] Mothers having no antenatal check-ups 1 study [6]
Higher household food security 2 studies [15, 37] Living in areas that flood 2 studies [24, 25]
Household wealth index rich or richest 4 studies [6, 37, 45, 46] Household wealth index poor or poorest. 7 studies [6, 22, 24, 25, 42, 45, 46]
Use of local officials to promote food already in households to be used as CF 1 study [14] Lower household food security 4 studies [15, 24, 37, 44]
  Lack of provision of maternity leave 1 study [44]