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Table 8 Barriers to Food Intake by Site (n = 700)

From: Need for the Integrated Nutrition Pathway for Acute Care (INPAC): gaps in current nutrition care in five Canadian hospitals

Barriers to food intake Overall
(N = 700)
% (n)
Site A
(N = 152)
% (n)
Site B
(N = 119)
% (n)
Site C
(N = 159)
% (n)
Site D
(N = 131)
% (n)
Site E
(N = 139)
% (n)
 % of audits with barriers identified 84.6 (592)** 79.6 (121) 84.9 (101) 76.1 (121) 90.1 (118) 94.2 (131)
Most common barriers identified (n = 592)
% (n)
(n = 121)
% (n)
(n = 101)
% (n)
(n = 121)
% (n)
(n = 118)
% (n)
(n = 131)
% (n)
 Needs positioning 17.7 (105)** 9.9 (12) 13.9 (14) 28.9 (35) 18.6 (22) 16.8 (22)
 Needs meal set-up 21.6 (128)** 19 (23) 24.8 (25) 30.6 (37) 22 (26) 13 (17)
 Requires eating assistance 15.7 (93)** 9.9 (12) 9.9 (10) 29.8 (36) 1.7 (2) 25.2 (33)
 Reduced appetite 17.4 (103)** 10.7 (13) 3.0 (3) 17.4 (21) 11 (13) 40.5 (53)
 Cognitive impairment 22 (130)** 25.6 (31) 5.9 (6) 40.5 (49) 3.5 (4) 30.5 (40)
 Swallowing difficulty 22.5 (133)** 9.1 (11) 7.9 (8) 18.2 (22) 39.8 (47) 34.4 (45)
 Constipation 38.8 (227)** 38.8 (47) 39.6 (40) 12.4 (15) 48.3 (57) 51.9 (68)
 Nausea/vomiting 33.4 (198)** 35.5 (43) 29.7 (30) 15.7 (19) 46.6 (55) 38.9 (51)
 Pain 58.8 (348)** 45.5 (55) 42.6 (43) 38.8 (47) 68.3 (98) 80.2 (105)
  1. More than one barrier may have been identified per audit
  2. **indicates statistically significant difference across sites (p < 0.0001)