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Table 4 Percentage distribution of environmental sanitation and safe drinking water characteristics of the respondents from lowland and highland communities of district Raya Alamata, Southern Tigiray, Ethiopia, 2014

From: Comparison of nutritional status and associated factors of lactating women between lowland and highland communities of District Raya, Alamata, Southern Tigiray, Ethiopia

Variable Residence
Lowland Highland
Frequency (%) Frequency (%)
Have latrine
 Yes 161(70.6) 116(50.9)
 No 67(29.4) 112(49.1)
Type of latrine
 Traditional pit 126(78.3) 97(83.6)
 Ventilated improved pit 35(21.7) 19(16.4)
Solid waste disposal
 Open field 53(23.2) 138(60.5)
 Dumping 25(11.0) 17(7.5)
 In a pit 150(65.8) 42(18.4)
 Burning 0 31(13.6)
Liquid waste disposal
 Open field 63(27.6) 145(63.6)
 In a pit 165(72.4) 83(36.4)
Main source of drinking water
 Pipe (tap water) 95(41.7) 0
 Public water 133(58.3) 78(34.2)
 Protected spring/well 0 35(15.4)
 River water 0 93(40.8)
 Unprotected spring/well/rain 0 22(9.6)
Water storage
 Plastic container/jerican 227(99.6) 201(88.2)
 Clay pot 1(0.4) 27(11.8)
Water for cooking, washing
 Pipe (tap water) 95(41.7) 0
 Public water 133(58.3) 71(31.1)
 Protected spring/well 0 28(12.3)
 Unprotected spring/well 0 35(15.4)
 River water 0 94(41.2)
Time to fetch water
 0–15 min 76(57.1) 90(39.5)
 16–30 min 32(24.1) 62(27.2)
  > = 30 min 25(18.8) 76(33.3)