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Table 3 Nutritional and lifestyle characteristics according to SSB consumption

From: Assessment of sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and weight change: a prospective cohort study

  Units Categories of SSB consumption at baseline P valuea
Never SSB Low SSB Moderate SSB High SSB
Participants n (%) 371 (66) 82 (15) 91 (16) 18 (3)  
SSB consumption 2002 mean (SD) ml/d 0 (0) 103 (42) 336 (122) 1008 (259) <0.001
Classified in same SSB category 2002 and 2012 % 82 20 30 33  
Move to category of greater SSB consumption in 2012 % 18 21 0 0  
Move to category of lower SSB consumption in 2012 % 0 60 70 67  
Men % 59 70 84 83 <0.001c
Age 2002 mean (SD) years 47.7 (9.3) 45.7 (8.9) 43.3 (10.1) 36.9 (9.3) <0.001
Smokers 2002 % 11 16 21 17 0.66c
Healthy Eating Index 2002 mean (SD) 49 (10) 45 (9) 40 (9) 33 (5) <0.001
Mediterranean Diet Score 2002 mean (SD) 3.9 (1.5) 3.9 (1.5) 3.6 (1.5) 2.9 (1.2) 0.03
Physical activity level 2002b mean (SD) 1.7 (0.2) 1.8 (0.2) 1.8 (0.3) 1.8 (0.3) 0.004
Physical activity level 2012b mean (SD) 1.7 (0.2) 1.7 (0.2) 1.8 (0.3) 1.9 (0.3) <0.001
Physical activity difference 2012 minus 2002b mean (SD) −0.03 (0.20) −0.04 (0.21) −0.04 (0.27) 0.09 (0.27) 0.03
Energy consumption 2002 mean (SD) kcal/d 2308 (653) 2429 (635) 2552 (646) 3215 (784) <0.001
Energy consumption 2002 without SSB mean (SD) kcal/d 2308 (653) 2384 (635) 2404 (640) 2772 (821) 0.02
Energy consumption 2012 mean (SD) kcal/d 2186 (640) 2328 (666) 2399 (532) 2781 (592) <0.001
Energy consumption 2012 without SSB mean (SD) kcal/d 2186 (640) 2292 (674) 2356 (519) 2605 (599) 0.003
Energy difference 2012 minus 2002 mean kcal/d −122 −101 −153 −434 0.257
Energy difference 2012 minus 2002 without SSB mean kcal/d −122 −91 −48 −166 0.688
Weight 2002 mean (SD) kg 72.9 (11.7) 75.0 (11.3) 77.2 (13.4) 74.9 (13.1) 0.015
Weight 2012 mean (SD) kg 73.9 (12.2) 76.3 (11.7) 78.4 (13.8) 81.4 (13.4) 0.008
Weight difference 2012 minus 2002 mean (SD) kg 1.0 (5.0) 1.3 (4.5) 1.2 (4.8) 6.5 (7.5) <0.001
Subjects who gained weight n (%) 176 (47) 43 (52) 47 (52) 15 (83)  
Subjects with stable weight n (%) 80 (22) 16 (20) 16 (18) 2 (11)  
Subjects who lost weight n (%) 115 (31) 23 (28) 28 (31) 1 (6)  
  1. SSB sugar sweetened beverages
  2. Categorization for SSB consumption in 2002: never SSB; low SSB consumption (less than 200 ml/d); moderate SSB consumption (between 200 and less than 700 ml/d); high SSB consumption (700 ml/d and more)
  3. Weight change was categorized in weight increase of one kg or more, weight decrease of one kg or more, and weight stable
  4. aAnova test, but for c that is a Chi-square test
  5. bPhysical activity level was estimated using the Flemish Physical Activity Questionnaire [9]