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Table 3 Sociodemographic characteristics, health outcomes, and nutrient intake by PCA-derived dietary pattern tertile for Guatemalan women. INCAP Nutrition Supplementation Trial Longitudinal Cohort, 2002–2004 (n = 747)

From: Dietary patterns and cardio-metabolic risk in a population of Guatemalan young adults

  Meat-based modern Starch-based modern Traditional
  n T1 T2 T3 P-trendh T1 T2 T3 P-trendh T1 T2 T3 P-trendh
Participants, n 747 252 247 248   252 247 248   251 246 250  
Mean factor score 747 −0.9 (0.2) −0.5 (0.1) 0.3 (0.7)   −0.9 (0.2) −0.2 (0.2) 1.0 (0.8)   −1.1 (0.4) −0.3 (0.1) 0.6 (0.6)  
Age, y 747 33.4 (4.1) 32.6 (4.2) 32.8 (4.4) 0.1 32.7 (4.3) 32.7 (4.0) 33.3 (4.0) 0.1 32.0
(4.1)
33.0 (4.3) 32.7 (4.3) 0.5
SES tertile 747     0.001     0.6     0.6
Poorest   28.9 34.4 41.5   32.9 34.0 37.9   32.2 35.7 36.8  
Middle   23.8 29.7 22.9   27.7 25.9 20.9   27.4 24.8 22.4  
Richest   47.2 37.6 35.4   39.2 40.0 41.1   40.2 39.4 40.8  
Urban, % 747 28.5 29.9 29.8 0.7 25.4 30.7 32.2 0.09 44.6 26.4 17.2 <0.001
Current smoking, % 692 0.8 1.3 3.0 0.06i 2.1 2.1 0.8 0.2i 1.7 1.3 2.1 0.7i
Low physical activitya, % 747 97.2 97.9 95.5 0.2 98.0 95.1 97.5 0.7 96.4 98.3 96.0 0.7
Vitamin use, % 695 17.8 20.4 23.5 0.1 17.4 18.4 25.7 0.02 22.6 18.3 20.7 0.6
BMI (kg/m2) 683 26.8 (4.8) 26.8 (4.4) 26.9 (5.0) 0.6 27.1 (5.1) 26.9 (4.5) 26.7 (4.6) 0.4 26.4 (4.8) 27.0 (4.5) 27.3 (4.9) 0.04
Overweightb, % 683 59.3 61.7 65.6 0.1 60.7 63.4 62.3 0.7 58.5 64.2 63.7 0.2
Abdominal obesityc, % 683 61.5 63.0 62.0 0.9 63.0 61.3 62.3 0.8 55.9 66.5 64.2 0.06
Elevated triglyceridesd, % 647 52.8 51.6 49.7 0.5 51.6 49.3 53.4 0.7 48.8 53.8 51.8 0.5
Low HDL-ce 647 82.6 87.2 87.2 0.1 84.8 85.3 86.6 0.5 82.4 86.5 87.8 0.1
Dysglycemiaf 726 16.2 21.9 20.0 0.2 18.5 18.6 21.1 0.4 16.8 23.0 18.5 0.6
Metabolic Syndromeg 747 38.1 38.0 36.2 0.6 35.3 37.2 39.9 0.2 32.2 41.0 39.2 0.1
Dietary Intakes              
Total energy (kcal/day) 747 1864 (584) 2243 (582) 2646 (715) <0.001 1813 (542) 2220 (559) 2722 (689) <0.001 2010 (668) 2144 (591) 2593 (717) <0.001
Carbohydrate (% of total energy) 747 71.7 (5.6) 68.9 (4.9) 65.8 (5.2) <0.001 71.3 (5.3) 68.9 (5.2) 66.3 (5.7) <0.001 66.1 (6.0) 69.2 (4.8) 71.3 (5.1) <0.001
Protein (% of total energy) 747 12.1 (1.7) 12.1 (1.7) 12.4 (1.7) 0.05 12.0 (1.4) 12.2 (1.6) 12.6 (2.0) <0.001 12.6 (2.1) 12.1 (1.5) 12.1 (1.3) 0.03
Fat (% of total energy) 747 16.0 (4.7) 18.7 (4.1) 21.6 (4.4) <0.001 16.5 (4.9) 18.7 (4.3) 20.9 (4.6) <0.001 21.2 (4.8) 18.6 (4.2) 16.4 (4.6) <0.001
Cholesterol (mg/day) 747 194.3 (141.3) 274.6 (138.7) 367.8 (217.7) <0.001 186.6 (135.8) 267.7 (159.0) 382.5 (196.5) <0.001 246.4 (151.6) 284.0 (177.9) 305.2 (212.8) 0.002
Fiber (g/day) 747 25.3 (8.7) 28.3 (8.6) 30.8 (10.3) <0.001 24.5 (8.0) 27.6 (8.8) 32.2 (10.0) <0.001 23.5 (7.8) 26.8 (7.1) 33.9 (10.2) <0.001
Iron (mg/day) 747 11.5 (5.3) 12.9 (4.5) 15.2 (5.3) <0.001 9.5 (3.2) 12.7 (3.8) 17.4 (5.2) <0.001 12.2 (4.9) 12.2 (4.9) 15.1 (5.5) <0.001
Vitamin C   289.7 (217.5) 268.6 (186.4) 286.6 (183.7) 0.5 151.2 (105.6) 277.7 (146.3) 418.4 (218.8) <0.001 291.9 (195.7) 258.2 (173.5) 294.5 (216.4) 0.7
  1. Values presented are mean (SD) or percent
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, INCAP Institute of Nutrition for Central America and Panama, NCEP ATP III National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, PCA principal component analysis; SES, socioeconomic status, T tertile
  3. aLow physical activity defined as 24-h average physical activity <1.7 MET/h
  4. bOverweight defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2
  5. cAbdominal obesity defined as waist circumference ≥ 88 cm
  6. dElevated triglycerides defined as ≥150 mg/dL or medication
  7. eLow HDL-c defined as HDL-c < 50 mg/dL
  8. fDysglycemia defined as impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 100–125 mg/dL) or diabetes (self-report, fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, and/or use of diabetes medication)
  9. gMetabolic syndrome defined according to 2005 NCEP ATP III diagnostic criteria based on presence ≥3 of the following: abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 88 cm); fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL or medication; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL or medication; HDL-c < 50 mg/dL); blood pressure > 130 mmHg systolic, >85 mmHg diastolic and/or medication use
  10. hP for trend was calculated using Spearman correlation (continuous) and Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square tests (categorical variables)
  11. iExpected cell count <5