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Table 4 Sociodemographic characteristics, health outcomes, and nutrient intake by PCA-derived dietary pattern tertile for Guatemalan men. INCAP Nutrition Supplementation Trial Longitudinal Cohort, 2002–2004 (n = 681)

From: Dietary patterns and cardio-metabolic risk in a population of Guatemalan young adults

   Meat-based modern Starch-based modern Traditional
  n T1 T2 T3 P-trendh T1 T2 T3 P-trendh T1 T2 T3 P-trendh
Participants, n 681 227 228 226   226 228 227   227 227 227  
Mean factor score 681 −0.5 (0.3) 0.2 (0.2) 1.6 (0.9)   −0.9 (0.4) −0.06 (0.2) 1.2 (0.7)   −0.7 (0.6) 0.2 (0.2) 1.4 (0.6)  
Age, y 681 33.1 (4.2) 32.7 (4.3) 31.7 (3.9) 0.002 32.5 (4.3) 32.5 (4.1) 32.5 (4.2) 0.9 32.8 (4.4) 32.2 (4.1) 32.5 (4.0) 0.7
SES tertile 681     0.7     0.6     0.05
 Poorest   36.5 31.1 33.6   32.7 30.2 38.3   28.6 37.0 35.6  
 Middle   26.8 30.7 30.0   33.6 27.6 26.4   29.9 26.4 31.2  
 Richest   36.5 38.1 36.2   33.6 42.1 35.2   41.4 36.5 33.0  
Urban, % 680 26.9 20.6 19.9 0.07 22.1 21.5 23.7 0.6 29.5 21.6 16.3 <0.001
Current smoking, % 554 32.1 43.8 48.3 0.001 46.8 36.6 40.4 0.2 36.2 41.0 46.5 0.04
Low physical activitya, % 681 61.2 56.5 53.5 0.09 49.1 58.7 63.4 0.002 66.9 56.8 47.5 <0.001
Vitamin use, % 554 24.2 21.6 26.0 0.6 15.9 24.0 32.2 <0.001 28.5 21.6 21.9 0.1
BMI (kg/m2) 589 24.5 (3.6) 24.5 (3.5) 24.7 (3.6) 0.5 24.3 (3.5) 24.5 (3.5) 25.0 (3.6) 0.02 25.0 (3.8) 24.8 (3.5) 24.1 (3.3) 0.003
Overweightb, % 589 38.9 41.6 42.3 0.4 38.2 37.5 47.1 0.07 46.7 42.6 34.1 0.01
Abdominal obesityc, % 589 4.9 6.6 6.3 0.5 6.1 4.5 7.2 0.6 7.0 6.0 4.8 0.3
Elevated triglyceridesd, % 456 53.0 58.1 52.7 0.9 52.9 49.3 61.7 0.1 58.3 52.3 53.0 0.3
Low HDL-ce, % 456 74.3 76.3 72.2 0.6 68.3 78.2 76.5 0.1 82.6 70.2 69.8 0.009
Dysglycemiaf, % 456 15.1 14.6 15.2 0.9 14.4 14.8 15.8 0.6 17.7 13.3 14.0 0.2
Metabolic syndromeg, % 681 14.5 15.7 14.6 0.9 15.9 14.4 14.5 0.6 18.0 12.7 14.1 0.2
Dietary Intakes              
Total energy (kcal/day) 681 2626 (676) 3059 (760) 3627 (839) <0.001 2578 (733) 3064 (690) 3666 (796) <0.001 2775 (862) 2945 (717) 3590 (784) <0.001
Carbohydrate (% of total energy) 681 72.2
(4.5)
69.6 (4.4) 67.3 (5.4) <0.001 71.2 (5.1) 70.0 (4.4) 67.9 (5.5) <0.001 67.5 (5.1) 70.2 (4.9) 71.3 (4.9) <0.001
Protein (% of total energy) 681 11.6
(1.6)
11.9 (1.4) 12.1 (1.6) <0.001 11.6 (1.4) 11.8
(1.4)
12.3 (1.7) <0.001 12.1 (1.6) 11.6 (1.5) 11.9 (1.5) 0.4
Fat (% of total energy) 681 16.0
(3.9)
18.4 (3.7) 20.5 (4.5) <0.001 17.1 (4.6) 18.1 (3.8) 19.7 (4.5) <0.001 20.2 (4.2) 18.0 (4.0) 16.6 (4.4) <0.001
Cholesterol (mg/day) 681 280.9 (157.6) 396.8 (201.6) 501.6 (236.2) <0.001 294.6 (174.3) 383.8 (195.6) 500.0 (236.0) <0.001 365.9 (204.5) 361.5 (199.8) 451.3 (242.3) <0.001
Fiber (g/day) 681 36.2 (11.6) 39.1 (13.0) 43.0 (13.1) <0.001 33.5 (10.1) 39.3 (11.4) 45.4 (13.9) <0.001 32.3 (10.6) 37.9 (9.8) 48.1 (12.7) <0.001
Iron (mg/day) 681 14.6
(5.2)
17.1 (6.3) 19.8 (6.3) <0.001 12.9 (4.7) 16.7 (4.3) 21.8 (6.3) <0.001 15.7 (6.0) 15.7 (5.7) 20.0 (6.3) <0.001
Vitamin C (mg/day) 681 352.5 (289.7) 362.2 (266.0) 352.0 (232.6) 0.6 191.2 (125.6) 351.2 (177.3) 523.7 (325.9) <0.001 327.5 (212.1) 328.2 (215.0) 411.0 (336.2) 0.01
  1. Values presented are mean (SD) or percent
  2. Abbreviations: BMI body mass index, HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol, INCAP Institute of Nutrition for Central America and Panama, NCEP ATP III National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III, PCA principal component analysis, SES socioeconomic status, T tertile
  3. aLow physical activity defined as 24-h average physical activity <1.7 MET/h
  4. bOverweight defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2
  5. cAbdominal obesity defined as waist circumference ≥ 102 cm
  6. dElevated triglycerides defined as ≥150 mg/dL or medication
  7. eLow HDL-c defined as HDL-c < 40 mg/dL
  8. fDysglycemia defined as impaired fasting glucose (fasting plasma glucose 100–125 mg/dL) or diabetes (self-report, fasting plasma glucose ≥126 mg/dL, and/or use of diabetes medication)
  9. gMetabolic syndrome defined according to 2005 NCEP ATP III diagnostic criteria based on presence ≥3 of the following: abdominal obesity (waist circumference ≥ 88 cm); fasting plasma glucose ≥100 mg/dL or medication; triglycerides ≥150 mg/dL or medication; HDL-c < 50 mg/dL); blood pressure > 130 mmHg systolic, >85 mmHg diastolic and/or medication use
  10. hP for trend was calculated using Spearman correlation (continuous) and Mantel- Haenszel Chi-square tests (categorical variables)