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Table 2 Descriptive analyses of fat mass index and fat-free mass index at 18 years according to breastfeeding and introduction of complementary feeding during the first year of life, stratified by sex. 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort (n = 1438)

From: Breastfeeding and complementary feeding associated with body composition in 18–19 years old adolescents in the 1993 Pelotas Birth Cohort

Independent variables Men (n = 694)
Mean (SD)
Women (n = 744)
Mean (SD)
% FMI FFMI % FMI FFMI
Total breastfeeding (months)   0.773a 0.011a   0.528 a 0.063 a
 Never 4.1 3.9 (3.2) 18.6 (1.7) 3.5 8.2 (3.2) 14.6 (1.6)
 0.01–1.00 17.6 4.3 (3.5) 19.4 (2.1) 15.4 8.2 (3.9) 15.2 (1.7)
 1.01–3.00 32.0 3.9 (2.9) 18.9 (1.7) 30.6 7.9 (3.2) 15.5 (1.7)
 3.01–6.00 18.5 3.8 (2.7) 18.7 (1.9) 16.0 8.5 (4.1) 15.5 (1.7)
 6.01–12.00 12.5 4.4 (3.1) 19.6 (1.9) 12.4 9.1 (5.2) 15.8 (2.0)
  > 12.00 15.3 4.3 (3.7) 19.4 (2.1) 22.1 7.9 (3.1) 15.7 (1.5)
Breastfeeding   0.703 b 0.172b   0.975 b 0.021 b
 No 4.0 3.9 (3.2) 18.6 (1.7) 3.4 8.2 (3.2) 14.6 (1.6)
 Yes 96.0 4.1 (3.1) 19.1 (1.9) 96.6 8.2 (3.8) 15.5 (1.6)
Age of introduction of other milks c (months)   0.175 a 0.187 a   0.188 a 0.624 a
  < = 1.00 41.2 4.2 (3.3) 19.3 (2.0) 38.3 8.6 (3.9) 15.4 (1.7)
 1.01–2.00 24.4 3.6 (2.4) 18.8 (1.9) 25.3 7.7 (3.1) 15.5 (1.7)
 2.01–3.00 14.0 4.1 (3.3) 19.0 (1.7) 16.3 8.4 (4.6) 15.4 (1.8)
 3.01–4.00 8.9 3.6 (2.4) 18.7 (1.7) 10.5 8.6 (4.2) 15.7 (1.7)
 4.01–5.00 6.8 4.5 (2.7) 19.0 (1.9) 4.9 8.4 (3.5) 15.9 (1.6)
  > 5.00 4.7 5.0 (3.3) 19.6 (2.4) 4.8 7.3 (2.8) 15.2 (1.3)
Age of introduction of other foods d (months)   0.887 a 0.280 a   0.031 a 0.013 a
  < = 1.00 3.5 3.5 (3.6) 18.6 (1.4) 5.9 8.5 (2.8) 15.5 (1.4)
 1.01–2.00 16.8 4.2 (3.3) 19.3 (2.3) 15.6 8.4 (3.9) 15.5 (1.8)
 2.01–3.00 41.2 4.0 (3.0) 19.0 (1.8) 43.1 8.1 (3.7) 15.5 (1.6)
 3.01–4.00 27.7 3.9 (2.9) 19.1 (1.9) 23.4 7.7 (3.4) 15.5 (1.6)
 4.01–5.00 8.5 4.4 (3.1) 19.9 (2.1) 9.7 9.2 (4.7) 15.8 (2.0)
  > 5.00 2.4 4.6 (4.0) 18.1 (2.0) 2.3 6.6 (2.1) 14.5 (1.1)
  1. Abbreviations: SD standard deviation, FMI fat mass index, FFMI fat-free mass index
  2. aTest for Heterogeneity. bT test. c Cow milk and formula. dFruits, vegetables and others