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Table 2 Demographic and baseline characteristics of study participants overall and by age group

From: Prevalence and determinants of stunting in a conflict-ridden border region in Armenia - a cross-sectional study

    Child’s age
Categories Total (N = 604) 6–24 months old 25–72 months old p valuea
Demographic characteristics
Gender, n (%)*
 Male 323 (53.48) 81 (48.79) 242 (55.25) 0.15
 Female 281 (46.52) 85 (51.20) 196 (44.75)
Location, n (%)
 Berd 208 (34.43) 63 (37.95) 145 (33.11) 0.26
 Rural Areas 396 (65.57) 103 (62.05) 293 (66.89)
Baseline characteristics
Birthweight, mean (SD), Kilograms 3.15 (0.50) 3.14 (0.52) 3.16 (0.50) 0.67
Birthlength, mean (SD), centimeters 49.74 (2.24) 49.57 (2.64) 49.80(2.07) 0.27
Breastfeeding duration, mean (SD), months 11.46 (7.16) 9.92 (5.67) 12.04 (7.58) 0.00
Mother’s height, mean(SD), centimeters 159.46 (5.84) 159.83 (5.78) 159.33(5.87) 0.35
Composite SES score, mean (SD) 8.88 (1.60) 8.99(1.73) 8.83(1.55) 0.30
Body Mass Index, mean (SD) 16.72 (2.22) 17.73 (2.17) 16.34 (2.12) 0.00
Maternal Education, n (%)
  ≤ highschool (10 years) 370 (61.26) 98 (59.04) 272 (62.1) 0.49
  > highschool (10 years) 234 (38.74) 68 (40.96) 166 (37.9)
Financial condition of the family compared to neighbors
 Significantly below average 89 (14.74) 23 (13.86) 66 (15.07) 0.22
 Below average 115(19.04) 32 (19.28) 83 (18.95)
 Average 336 (55.63) 86 (51.81) 250 (57.08)
 Above average 42 (6.95) 15 (9.04) 27 (6.16)
 Significantly above average 22 (3.64) 10 (6.02) 12 (2.74)
Child’s history of diarrhea, n (%)
 Yes 73 (12.2) 25(15.15) 48 (11.09) 0.17
 No 525 (87.8) 140 (84.85) 385 (88.91)
Caregiver’s participation in community training programs, n (%)
 Yes 107 (18.20) 23 (14.11) 84 (19.27) 0.22
 No 490 (81.80) 140 (85.89) 350 (80.28)
Exclusive breastfeeding reported by mother, n (%)
 Yes 199 (39.10) 90 (56.25) 220 (63.04) 0.14
 No 310 (60.90) 70 (43.75) 129 (36.96)
Child’s history of sleeping hungry reported by caregiver, n (%)
 Always 3 (0.50) 0 3 (0.69) 0.55 b
 Often 10 (1.68) 4 (2.44) 6 (1.38)
 Sometimes 69 (11.56) 21 (12.80) 48 (11.09)
 Never 515 (86.26) 139 (84.76) 376 (86.84)
Child’s history of iron medication intake, n (%)
 Positive 31 (5.16) 8 (4.85) 23 (5.52) 0.80
 Negative 568 (94.84) 157 (95.15) 411(94.48)
Child’s previous history of soil-transmitted helminth disease, n (%)
 Positive 97 (16.19) 4 (2.42) 93 (21.43) 0.00
 Negative 502 (83.81) 161 (97.58) 341 (78.57)
Minimum Dietary Diversity, n (%)
 Positive 414 (68.54) 97 (58.43) 317 (72.37) 0.00
 Negative 190 (31.46) 69 (41.57) 121 (27.63)
Soil-transmitted helminth confirmed by Kato Katz method, n (%)
 Negative 469 (78.69) 142 (86.59) 327 (75.58) 0.49 c
 Ascaris lumbricoides 57 (9.56) 12 (7.32) 45 (10.37)
 Trichuris trichiura (whipworm) 67 (11.25) 9 (5.49) 58 (13.59)
 hookworms 1 (0.17) 0 1(0.23)
 pinworms 2 (0.33) 1(0.61) 1 (0.23)
Stunting, n (%)
 Positive 56 (9.32) 22 (13.33) 34 (7.80) 0.03
 Negative 545 (90.68) 143 (86.67) 402 (92.20)
Anemia, n (%)
 Positive 115 (19.07) 69 (41.57) 46 (10.53) 0.00
 Negative 488 (80.93) 97 (58.43) 391 (89.47)
  1. Abbreviations; SD standard deviation
  2. a p values for the differences between child age groups for continuous variables were obtained using an analysis of variance F-test. P values for different proportions between child age groups for categorical/binary variables were obtained by Chi-squared test
  3. b p values for different proportions between child age groups and whether the child has ever slept hungry reported by the caregiver was calculated by Fisher’s exact test
  4. c p values for different proportions between child age groups and parasite types among the children who tested positive for soil-transmitted helminths