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Table 2 Longitudinal associations between skipping breakfast aged 8-9 years and teacher-reported academic performance aged 10-11 years (N = 1924)

From: Skipping breakfast among 8-9 year old children is associated with teacher-reported but not objectively measured academic performance two years later

Outcome and category of skipping breakfast Above averagea Averagea Below averagea Model 1b Model 2c Model 3d
n (%) n (%) n (%) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI) RR (95% CI)
Reading progress
 Never skipped 760 (44.5) 694 (40.6) 254 (14.9) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 77 (37.4) 90 (43.7) 39 (18.9) 1.15 (1.05, 1.26) 1.14 (1.05, 1.24) 1.18 (1.08, 1.29)
P-value     0.002 0.002 0.001
Mathematics progress
 Never skipped 705 (41.6) 748 (44.2) 241 (14.2) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref)
 ≥ 1 skips 79 (38.5) 88 (42.9) 38 (18.5) 1.11 (1.01, 1.22) 1.11 (1.03, 1.22) 1.11 (1.02, 1.20)
P-value     0.024 0.011 0.017
Overall achievement
 Never skipped 732 (43.0) 777 (45.7) 192 (11.3) 1.00 (ref) 1.00 (ref) ---e
 ≥ 1 skips 80 (38.6) 93 (44.9) 34 (16.4) 1.14 (1.04, 1.25) 1.15 (1.05, 1.25) ---e
P-value     0.007 0.002  
  1. aComparisons are to other children of the same grade level, calculated using log-link ordinal regression. Below average = below/far below average; Above average = above/far above average
  2. bModel 1: adjusted for sex and age at time of the parent interview
  3. cModel 2: adjusted for sex, age at time of the parent interview and SES (measured at Wave 3)
  4. dModel 3: Model 2 plus the following additional covariates reading progress – teacher reported prosocial behavior at W4; mathematics progress – financial hardship
  5. eThere was no model 3 for overall achievement as none of the additional covariates changed the coefficient of the covariate for skipping breakfast by at least 10%