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Table 3 Association of undernutrition with the characteristics of the mother and their household

From: Socioeconomic determinants of malnutrition among mothers in the Amoron’i Mania region of Madagascar: a cross-sectional study

  n BMI < 18,5 (%) OR (95% CI) pa MUAC < 220 mm
(%)
OR (95% CI) pa
Age (year)     0.087b    0.418
 18–29 206 14.6 1   8.7 1  
 30–39 322 16.5 1.15 (0.71–1.88)   7.5 0.84 (0.44–1.59)  
 40–45 142 21.3 1.64 (0.94–2.86)   11.3 1.33 (0.65–2.70)  
Occupation     0.475    0.771
 Farmer 605 17.4 1   8.8 1  
 Others 65 13.8 0.77 (0.37–1.60)   7.7 0.87 (0.33–2.26)  
Marital status     0.226    0.327
 Couple 520 17.9 1   9.2 1  
 Single 150 14.0 0.75 (0.45–1.25)   6.7 0.70 (0.39–1.42)  
Education level     0.766    0.022
 Illiterate & Primary 487 17.7 1.20 (0.45–3.20)   9.7 1.53 (0.72–3.32)  
 Secondary 1st cycle 150 15.3 1.01 (0.35–2.90)   6.7 1  
 Secondary 2nd cycle 33 15.2 1   0.0 NA  
Dietary diversity score     0.125    0.646
  ≤ 4 558 17.9 1   8.8 1  
 5 and + 82 11.0 1.76 (0.85–3.64)   7.3 1.23 (0.51–2.96)  
Parity     0.554    0.353
 0–3 293 16.0 1   7.5 1  
 4 and + 377 17.8 1.13 (0.75–1.70)   9.6 1.30 (0.75–2.62)  
Breastfeeding     0.248    0.037
 Yes 283 15.2 0.79 (0.53–1.21)   11.3 1.77 (1.02–3.04)  
 No 387 18.4 1   6.7 1  
Birth interval (months)     0.732    0.277
  ≤ 24 95 15.8 1   11.6 1  
  > 24 575 17.2 1.11 (0.61–2.00)   8.2 0.68 (0.34–1.36)  
Number of children < 5 years 670   0.88 (0.69–1.11) 0.280   1.41 (1.04–1.91) 0.029
Household size     0.016    0.292
  ≤ 5 310 13.2 1   7.4 1  
 6 and + 360 20.3 1.67 (1.10–2.53)   9.7 1.34 (0.76–2.33)  
Water source     0.024    0.040
 Safe 114 9.7 1   3.5 1  
 Unsafe 556 18.5 2.13 (1.10–4.11)   9.7 2.96 (1.04–8.34)  
Toilet     0.895    0.526
 Latrines 497 16.9 1   8.3 1  
 No toilet 173 17.3 1.3 (0.65–1.63)   9.8 1.21 (0.67–2.19)  
Movable property score     0.578    0.022 b
 Low 218 15.1 0.87 (0.52–1.45)   11.9 2.19 (1.10–4.40)  
 Medium 228 18.9 1.14 (0.70–1.84)   8.3 1.46 (0.71–3.06)  
 High 224 17.0 1   5.8 1  
Farming equipment score     0.086 b    0.606 b
 Low 351 17.9 1.20 (0.61–2.21)   9.7 1.38 (0.59–3.21)  
 Medium 222 16.2 1.06 (0.55–2.04)   7.7 1.07 (0.42–2.66)  
 High 97 15.5 1   7.2 1  
Farm animals score     0.489    0.926
 Low 254 16.1 0.80 (0.50–1.28)   8.7 1.07 (0.65–2.05)  
 Medium 195 15.4 0.75 (0.45–1.26)   9.2 1.14 (0.57–2.27)  
 High 221 19.5 1   8.1 1  
Rice availability (month) 586   0.92 (0.85–0.99) 0.046 586 0.97 (0.88–1.08) 0.629
  1. BMI Body Mass Index, OR Odds Ratio, CI Confidence interval, MUAC Mid Upper Arm Circumference, NA Not Applicable
  2. a Pearson’s chi square unless otherwise stated
  3. b Chi square for trend