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Table 3 Adiposity measures and metabolic parameters between eating frequency groupsa,b

From: Decreased eating frequency linked to increased visceral adipose tissue, body fat, and BMI in Hispanic college freshmen

  All Infrequent Eaters (n = 45) All Frequent Eaters (n = 47) p value Male Infrequent Eaters (n = 24) Male Frequent Eaters (n = 21) p value Female Infrequent Eaters (n = 21) Female Frequent Eaters (n = 26) p value
Sex M/Fc 24/21 21/26 0.53
Age (y)c 18.9 ± 0.4 18.7 ± 0.4 0.05 18.8 ± 0.4 18.6 ± 0.4 0.21 19.0 ± 0.4 18.8 ± 0.4 0.09
Height (cm)c 167.0 ± 10.4 167.8 ± 9.4 0.16 174.3 ± 5.7 175.5 ± 5.5 0.48 158.7 ± 8.1 161.5 ± 6.9 0.20
Weight (kg)c 69.4 ± 16.2 64.7 ± 11.2 0.29 77.1 ± 15.7 73.2 ± 9.8 0.33 61.0 ± 12.1 57.7 ± 6.6 0.24
Waist circumference (cm)d 86.2 ± 11.6 83.1 ± 7.2 0.19 87.8 ± 11.9 83.8 ± 8.7 0.15 84.4 ± 11.3 82.6 ± 5.8 0.19
BMI (kg/m2)d 24.8 ± 4.4 22.9 ± 3.2 0.02 25.3 ± 4.5 23.8 ± 3.5 0.10 24.2 ± 4.3 22.2 ± 2.8 0.04
BMI percentiled 64.0 ± 27.8 55.9 ± 26.6 0.08 65.5 ± 28.5 59.5 ± 29.2 0.22 62.4 ± 27.7 53.1 ± 24.4 0.17
BMI z scored 0.5 ± 1.0 0.2 ± 1.0 0.03 0.6 ± 1.1 0.3 ± 1.1 0.13 0.4 ± 0.9 0.1 ± 0.8 0.11
VAT (ml)d 298.3 ± 153.8 236.8 ± 78.2 0.03 307.9 ± 130.6 262.8 ± 89.6 0.12 287.5 ± 179.5 215.8 ± 61.6 0.18
SAT (ml)d 1150.1 ± 765.4 855.6 ± 494.6 0.03 1152.4 ± 856.0 870.3 ± 589.0 0.17 1147.7 ± 667.9 843.7 ± 415.1 0.06
Hepatic Fat (ml)d 31.4 ± 39.9 27.1 ± 32.1 0.35 34.7 ± 44.7 35.6 ± 46.2 0.90 27.6 ± 34.3 20.2 ± 8.7 0.26
NAFLD n (%)c 9 (20.0) 11 (23.4) 0.80 4 (16.7) 7 (33.3) 0.30 5 (23.8) 4 (15.4) 0.49
Total lean tissue (%)d 72.4 ± 10.8 74.7 ± 8.8 0.04 77.6 ± 10.2 80.3 ± 7.6 0.21 66.5 ± 8.3 70.2 ± 7.1 0.08
Total body fat (%)d 27.6 ± 10.8 25.3 ± 8.8 0.04 22.4 ± 10.2 19.7 ± 7.6 0.21 33.5 ± 8.3 29.8 ± 7.1 0.08
  1. aData presented as mean ± SD or n (%)
  2. bNAFLD Non Alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease, SAT Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue, VAT Visceral Adipose Tissue
  3. cA t-test (for continuous variables) and chi-square analysis (for categorical variables) assessed differences in sex, age, height, and weight between groups
  4. dMANCOVA analysis of adiposity measures between Infrequent Eaters and Frequent Eaters (n = 92). For the combined sample a priori covariates included: age, sex, and percent time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. When the sample was split by sex a priori covariates included: age, sex, and percent time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity