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Table 4 Dietary intake and physical activity between eating frequency groupsa,b

From: Decreased eating frequency linked to increased visceral adipose tissue, body fat, and BMI in Hispanic college freshmen

  All Infrequent Eaters (n = 45) All Frequent Eaters (n = 47) p value Male Infrequent Eaters (n = 24) Male Frequent Eaters (n = 21) p value Female Infrequent Eaters (n = 21) Female Frequent Eaters (n = 26) p value
Eating occasions per dayc 2.5 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.8 ≤0.01 2.5 ± 0.2 4.4 ± 0.9 ≤0.01 2.5 ± 0.2 4.5 ± 0.7 ≤0.01
Energy per eating occasion (kcal)c 670.9 ± 254.2 494.6 ± 195.1 ≤0.01 781.9 ± 286.2 639.2 ± 187.9 0.06 544.2 ± 127.6 377.8 ± 100.5 ≤0.01
Energy (kcal/day) c 1714.8 ± 542.7 2159.5 ± 819.7 ≤0.01 1992 ± 561.4 2750.1 ± 797.1 ≤0.01 1397.6 ± 296.0 1682.5 ± 445.4 0.02
Total fat (g/day) d 70.0 ± 26.4 81.4 ± 35.0 0.04 81.5 ± 28.1 105.2 ± 30.9 0.02 56.7 ± 17.1 62.2 ± 25.3 0.85
Total protein (g/day) d 71.8 ± 25.9 93.2 ± 51.4 ≤0.01 81.0 ± 27.4 105.2 ± 30.9 ≤0.01 61.3 ± 19.8 65.6 ± 20.9 0.15
Total carbohydrates (g/day) d 202.2 ± 69.4 271.1 ± 102.6 ≤0.01 236.0 ± 67.1 334.3 ± 115.3 ≤0.01 163.5 ± 49.6 220.0 ± 51.6 ≤0.01
Total saturated fat (g/day) d 21.1 ± 8.7 26.1 ± 13.1 0.02 24.8 ± 9.3 33.9 ± 13.4 0.02 17.1 ± 5.7 19.9 ± 9.0 0.64
Total sugars (g/day) d 77.8 ± 35.0 112.1 ± 60.9 ≤0.01 88.2 ± 37.3 128.9 ± 80.3 0.10 65.9 ± 28.8 98.5 ± 35.4 ≤0.01
Added sugars (g/day) d 60.7 ± 36.5 75.6 ± 52.9 0.14 70.6 ± 39.3 89.0 ± 68.9 0.75 49.4 ± 30.1 64.7 ± 33.0 0.14
Dietary fiber (g/day) d 13.5 ± 5.7 20.0 ± 7.8 ≤0.01 15.4 ± 5.9 23.0 ± 9.1 ≤0.01 11.4 ± 4.7 17.7 ± 5.7 0.02
Insoluble fiber (g/day) d 9.1 ± 4.3 13.5 ± 5.7 ≤0.01 10.2 ± 4.6 15.6 ± 6.7 ≤0.01 7.8 ± 3.7 11.8 ± 4.1 0.04
Soluble fiber (g/day) d 4.4 ± 1.6 6.4 ± 2.5 ≤0.01 5.2 ± 1.5 7.2 ± 2.8 ≤0.01 3.6 ± 1.3 5.7 ± 2.0 0.02
Min per day in MVPA e 63.5 ± 27.0 70.8 ± 26.8 0.29 68.0 ± 31.7 71.4 ± 27.2 0.72 58.5 ± 20.0 70.2 ± 27.0 0.15
Percent wear time in MVPA (%)e 8.3 ± 3.7 9.0 ± 3.1 0.50 9.0 ± 4.6 8.9 ± 2.6 0.95 7.7 ± 2.4 9.1 ± 3.5 0.17
Min per day in LPAe 96.8 ± 32.0 104.2 ± 32.7 0.16 94.4 ± 37.2 111.9 ± 34.5 0.16 99.5 ± 25.6 98.0 ± 30.3 0.75
Percent wear time in LPA (%)e 12.5 ± 3.5 13.3 ± 3.5 0.20 12.0 ± 3.9 14.1 ± 4.0 0.13 13.1 ± 3.0 12.5 ± 3.1 0.94
Min per day in SEDe 607.1 ± 95.8 606.5 ± 65.7 0.93 612.0 ± 108.0 607.8 ± 63.9 0.96 607.1 ± 95.8 606.5 ± 65.7 0.85
Percent wear time in SED (%)e 79.1 ± 4.8 77.7 ± 4.7 0.15 79.0 ± 5.6 77.0 ± 5.0 0.28 79.2 ± 3.8 78.3 ± 4.5 0.34
  1. aData presented as mean ± SD
  2. bLPA = Light Physical Activity, MVPA = Moderate to Vigorous Physical Activity, SED = Sedentary Behavior, Min = Minutes
  3. cT-test assessed differences in eating occasions per day, energy intake, and energy intake per eating occasion between groups
  4. dMANCOVA analysis of dietary variables between Infrequent Eaters and Frequent Eaters. A priori covariates used for the combined data set were age and sex. The a priori covariate for males and females was age
  5. eMANCOVA analysis of physical activity variables between Infrequent Eaters and Frequent Eaters. A priori covariates used for the combined data set were age and sex. When the sample was split by sex the a priori covariate was age