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Table 2 Unadjusted and adjusted means for Bayley Scales of Infant Development measures at 36 months

From: Associations between feeding practices and growth and neurodevelopmental outcomes at 36 months among children living in low- and low-middle income countries who participated in the BRAIN-HIT trial

  Mental Developmental Index (MDI) Psychomotor Developmental Index (PDI)
Measures   N a Mean ± SD (unadjusted) Mean (adjusted)b P valueb Mean ± SD (unadjusted) Mean (adjusted)b P valueb
Exclusively breastfed first 6 months Yes 230 94.25 ± 14.18 97.47 0.27 101.73 ± 15.07 101.80 0.61
No 139 96.39 ± 13.96 95.43   100.40 ± 17.58 100.57  
Legumes and nuts Yes 155 99.00 ± 12.05 95.62 0.35 105.02 ± 15.42
No 214 92.20 ± 14.83 97.32   98.48 ± 15.97  
Zambia Yes 84 105.08 ± 13.00 101.99 0.48
No 8    101.88 ± 6.36 97.98  
India Yes 65 106.60 ± 15.42 101.25 0.61
No 92    95.63 ± 13.95 102.74  
Pakistan Yes 6 87.00 ± 32.47 85.05 0.01
No 114    100.54 ± 17.60 100.44  
Eggs Yes 101 97.08 ± 14.92 96.98 0.62 102.87 ± 15.48 102.19 0.46
No 268 94.29 ± 13.76 96.28   100.60 ± 16.25 100.85  
Meat, fish or insects Yes 104 100.19 ± 12.21 98.04 0.13 104.39 ± 15.23 103.54 0.08
No 265 93.04 ± 14.33 95.67   99.98 ± 16.22 100.03  
Milk and dairy Yes 282 94.53 ± 14.45 96.74 0.57 100.97 ± 16.84 101.67 0.47
No 87 96.77 ± 12.93 95.58   102.06 ± 13.23 99.74  
Modified Minimum Dietary Diversity Yes 216 98.57 ± 13.10 96.87 0.38 103.97 ± 16.00 101.43 0.69
No 153 90.09 ± 14.06 95.73   97.35 ± 15.36 100.76  
Modified Minimum Meal Frequency Yes 295 94.79 ± 14.39 96.51 0.87 101.61 ± 15.86 101.57 0.44
No 74 96.14 ± 13.03 96.27   99.70 ± 16.81 100.05  
Modified Minimum Acceptable Diet Yes 174 98.41 ± 13.42 96.55 0.87 104.24 ± 15.93 101.21 0.98
No 195 92.07 ± 14.09 96.36   98.54 ± 15.72 101.16  
  1. aNumbers are among the 369 children with non-missing BSID-II scores. BSID-II scores were missing for 2/371 (0.5%) children [India: 2/159 (1.3%)]
  2. bBSID-II means were estimated using linear models fit to each Bayley index score and adjusted for SES, site, intervention group, resuscitation status, evaluator, sex, exclusively breastfed first 6 months, birth weight, preterm status, maternal age, and maternal education level. Statistical significance for a difference in means for those with and without each food consumption measure was determined by the F test. Tests of whether the association between measure and outcome differed by site were conducted. Interactions involving milk and dairy could not be tested as all participants from Pakistan received milk and dairy on an average day. Interactions with site were significant for legume/nut consumption (p = 0.01); PDI score means are shown by site for this measure