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Table 3 Summary of the instruments which were validated (n = 5) for assessment of saturated fat

From: A systematic review of methods to assess intake of saturated fat (SF) among healthy European adults and children: a DEDIPAC (Determinants of Diet and Physical Activity) study

Study/Instrument Design Age group Countries Mode Portion estimation
 Validation: 7-day diet diary [75]
Cross-sectional 45–69 years 3 (Russia, Poland, Czech Republic) Self-admin X
 IMMIDIET FFQ [31, 46]
 Validation: 5 24-HDRs [31]
Cross-sectional 26–65 years 3 (Belgium, England, Italy) also in Table 1 Self-admin. X
 PURE FFQ [32, 49]
 Validation: 2 FFQ’s and 4 24-HDRs [49]
Cross-sectional 30–70 years 3 European
4 LIC: Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, India, Pakistan; 10 MIC: South Africa, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Chile, Poland, China, Malaysia, Iran, Turkey; and 3 HIC: Canada, Sweden, UAE
Self-admin X
 Food4Me FFQ [42,43,44]
 Validation: 4-day weighed food record [42]
RCT 17–79 years 7 (Ireland, the Netherlands, Spain, Greece, UK, Poland, Germany) Self-admin X
 Piqueras et al. FFQ [62]
 Validation: 2 FFQs and 10 24-HDR [72]
Cross-sectional 4 years 3 (Spain, Germany, Hungary) Self-admin. X
  1. FFQ Food Frequency Questionnaire, 24-HDR 24 h dietary recall, HAPIEE Health, Alcohol and Psychosocial factors in Eastern Europe, PURE Prospective Urban Rural Epidemiology