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Table 1 Characteristics of participants at baseline and after 4 and 8 weeks of the dietary interventiona,b

From: Pilot randomized controlled trial of a Mediterranean diet or diet supplemented with fish oil, walnuts, and grape juice in overweight or obese US adults

  Control n = 9 Mediterranean Diet n = 11 Supplements (Fish Oil, Walnuts, and Grape Juice) n = 10
Baseline 4 weeks 8 weeks Baseline 4 weeks 8 weeks Baseline 4 weeks 8 weeks
Dietary variables
 Energy, kcal 2159 ± 411 2047 ± 436 1964 ± 680 2346 ± 742 2368 ± 486 2192 ± 1110 1647 ± 494 2163 ± 775* 2266 ± 321*
 Tot fat, %kcal 40.3 ± 4.8 40.8 ± 5.7 32.1 ± 5.6 40.4 ± 5.3 35.1 ± 2.6 31.8 ± 10.2 34.4 ± 5.8 43.4 ± 5.8* 43.3 ± 4.3*
 Sat fat, %kcal 12.8 ± 2.9 14.2 ± 3.5 9.7 ± 2.2 12.5 ± 4.6 5.8 ± 1.5* 7.6 ± 2.7 11.0 ± 3.2 8.6 ± 3.2 8.7 ± 1.5
 Carb, %kcal 44.3 ± 9.0 44.9 ± 7.3 50.5 ± 6.1 47.4 ± 6.2 52.0 ± 3.9 51.0 ± 7.6 45.0 ± 15.1 41.0 ± 9.0 42.4 ± 4.5
 Protein, %kcal 17.1 ± 3.2 15.5 ± 3.4 18.1 ± 3.2 14.0 ± 3.9 15.9 ± 1.5 16.9 ± 3.1 19.4 ± 6.1 16.9 ± 3.4 15.0 ± 1.7*
 Fiber, g 18.1 ± 3.8 19.2 ± 9.5 21.2 ± 9.99 19.7 ± 9.0 29.6 ± 10.1 28.7 ± 10.0 20.6 ± 12.7 22.3 ± 9.8 19.2 ± 6.6
 Chol, mg 292 ± 73 306 ± 128 282 ± 136 362 ± 216 223 ± 35.4* 334 ± 459 269 ± 120 301 ± 63.6 277 ± 47.4
 MUFA, g 23.0 ± 6.8 17.3 ± 6.0 18.1 ± 10.6 16.9 ± 13.6 41.3 ± 10.0* 29.3 ± 20.1 14.4 ± 6.8 24.1 ± 9.7* 27.2 ± 4.6*
 Omega-3, g 0.81 ± 0.74 0.58 ± 0.22 0.91 ± 0.69 0.81 ± 0.96 2.25 ± 0.76* 1.97 ± 2.32 0.47 ± 0.28 5.92 ± 1.39* 5.62 ± 1.31*
 Omega-6, g 7.62 ± 3.65 4.54 ± 1.66 6.00 ± 3.13 7.09 ± 7.76 21.5 ± 6.89* 12.6 ± 12.5 4.25 ± 2.87 26.6 ± 10.0* 25.5 ± 2.61*
Clinical variables
 Weight, kg 92.7 ± 7.2 96.2 ± 12.4 96.6 ± 11.1 93.4 ± 12.8 91.7 ± 12.5* 90.5 ± 13.0* 98.6 ± 16.8 99.5 ± 16.9 99.8 ± 16.8
 WC, cm 105.7 ± 9.2 112.0 ± 12.3 107.4 ± 10.5 107.3 ± 6.7 107.9 ± 6.5 104.5 ± 5.9 114.1 ± 11.4 114.7 ± 11.5 112.8 ± 17.0
 TC, mg/dl 189.6 ± 42.6 190.3 ± 30.9 179.3 ± 32.3 187.4 ± 38.4 163.3 ± 36.0* 164.2 ± 36.2 185.4 ± 19.9 178.3 ± 21.3 180.8 ± 19.4
 TG, mg/dl 80.4 ± 37.3 84.5 ± 34.3 97.9 ± 51.7 141.9 ± 110.9 140.5 ± 100.6 109.3 ± 50.3 82.1 ± 26.9 66.0 ± 20.5 59.9 ± 19.7
 HDL, mg/dl 46.2 ± 12.8 43.5 ± 11.9 40.9 ± 12.1 43.8 ± 14.1 40.2 ± 10.7 45.1 ± 12.5 43.6 ± 12.0 43.6 ± 13.2 47.3 ± 16.3
 LDL, mg/dl 125.4 ± 35.5 134.0 ± 35.0 122.0 ± 26.5 119.4 ± 36.5 98.8 ± 31.7* 97.1 ± 31.8 125.4 ± 19.6 121.5 ± 21.3 121.5 ± 21.0
 IL-6, pg/ml 1.87 ± 2.11 2.08 ± 2.98 2.03 ± 2.37 1.83 ± 2.14 1.62 ± 1.47 1.30 ± 1.23 2.26 ± 1.79 2.38 ± 2.48 2.44 ± 1.34
 IL-8, pg/ml 3.29 ± 1.11 3.30 ± 1.41 44.6 ± 116.1 10.4 ± 21.1 131.2 ± 358.2 4.22 ± 3.36 2.51 ± 1.28 3.46 ± 3.30 3.01 ± 1.94
 CRP, mg/l 5.52 ± 6.13 4.50 ± 5.83 5.22 ± 5.73 4.46 ± 8.02 4.18 ± 8.02 1.76 ± 1.72 6.51 ± 6.19 5.64 ± 6.22 7.77 ± 6.77
 APN, μg/l 7732 ± 4166 8021 ± 4796 8634 ± 4458 5846 ± 3762 5530 ± 4205 5575 ± 3215 6403 ± 4439 5975 ± 4490* 6532 ± 4586
 FPG, mg/dl 83.1 ± 13.7 80.7 ± 5.22 79.0 ± 6.11 89.6 ± 13.4 85.0 ± 7.15 93.8 ± 18.1 89.8 ± 11.0 87.1 ± 9.80 89.6 ± 9.90
 Insulin, μU/ml 7.19 ± 3.00 6.29 ± 3.47 6.80 ± 5.04 9.73 ± 6.87 10.1 ± 11.2 14.9 ± 27.8 11.3 ± 4.21 10.7 ± 6.49 12.0 ± 6.37
 FMD, % 6.16 ± 5.30 6.94 ± 5.48 5.28 ± 4.92 5.63 ± 3.35 7.97 ± 3.83 6.76 ± 3.61 6.90 ± 4.22 8.67 ± 4.48 9.61 ± 6.75
 CFU-As 51.6 ± 25.9 41.8 ± 30.0 61.0 ± 42.7 89.4 ± 42.2 60.4 ± 30. 6 44.3 ± 22.3* 78.1 ± 48.1 53.3 ± 36.1 55.4 ± 30.0
 Cysteine, μmol/l 13.3 ± 3.53 11.0 ± 1.40 12.8 ± 2.06 12.1 ± 4.20 12.1 ± 3.35 9.93 ± 1.73 13.4 ± 3.18 13.3 ± 5.02 12.2 ± 2.80
 Cystine, μmol/l 95.3 ± 18.9 103.6 ± 22.1 106.4 ± 30.6 95.1 ± 16.7 84.6 ± 18.3* 87.2 ± 11.0* 88.8 ± 18.2 91.5 ± 18.7 96.1 ± 18.5
 Glutathione, μmol/l 1.98 ± 1.04 1.89 ± 0.48 1.87 ± 0.42 2.05 ± 1.24 2.09 ± 0.75 1.54 ± 0.52 2.38 ± 1.18 1.74 ± 0.59 1.89 ± 1.02
  1. aValues are mean ± SD
  2. bMeans were calculated for all participants with non-missing data at the specified time point (baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks)
  3. *P < 0.05 for group-by-time interaction term where control and baseline are referent from mixed-effects models
  4. Abbreviations: APN adiponectin, FMD flow-mediated vasodilation, MUFA monounsaturated fatty acids, CFU-As circulating pro-angiogenic cell activity, TC total cholesterol, TG triglycerides, WC waist circumference