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Table 2 Associations of socio-demographic, dietary, lifestyle, anthropometric factors with Vitamin D status* *among study participants

From: Vitamin D status and body composition: a cross-sectional study among employees at a private university in Lebanon

Characteristic Total (n = 268) Men (n = 142) Women (n = 126)
Insufficient Sufficient P-value3 Insufficient Sufficient P-value3 Insufficient Sufficient P-value3
Mean ± SD / n (%)/ Median [IQR] Mean ± SD / n (%) Mean ± SD / n (%)
Age (years) 40 [33.0–51.0 43 [35.0–51.0] 0.593 45.8 ± 12.3 42.1 ± 11.2 0.088 37.3 ± 9.8 39.3 ± 9.7 0.320
Marital status   0.140   0.042   0.976
 Single/Separated/ Divorced 56 (65.9) 29 (34.1)   23 (57.5) 17 (42.5)   33 (73.3) 12 (26.7)  
 Married 138 (75.4) 45 (24.6) 77 (75.5) 25 (24.5) 61 (75.3) 20 (24.7)
Education level   0.793   0.551   0.231
 High school 45 (70.3) 19 (29.7)   30 (68.2) 14 (31.8)   15 (75.0) 5 (25.0)  
 Bachelor degree 52 (75.4) 17 (24.6) 20 (64.5) 11 (35.5) 32 (84.2) 6 (15.8)
 Graduate 97 (71.9) 38 (28.1) 50 (74.6) 17 (25.4) 47 (69.1) 21 (30.9)
Income ($)   0.902   0.137   0.295
  < 2250 68 (70.8) 28 (29.2)   34 (61.8) 21 (38.2)   34 (82.9) 7 (17.1)  
 2250–4000 51 (73.9) 18 (26.1) 23 (82.1) 5 (17.9) 28 (68.3) 13 (31.7)
  > 4000 75 (72.8) 28 (27.2) 43 (72.9) 16 (27.1) 32 (72.7) 12 (27.3)
Vitamin D intake (μg) 1.9 ± 2.0 3.3 ± 5.7 0.047 2.2 ± 2.2 3.4 ± 7.2 0.290 1.6 ± 1.7 3.1 ± 2.7 0.006
Alcohol drinking   0.095   0.964   0.022
 No 145 (75.5) 47 (24.5)   64 (71.1) 26 (28.9)   81 (79.4) 21 (20.6)  
 Yes 49 (64.5) 27 (35.5) 36 (69.2) 16 (30.8) 13 (54.2) 11 (45.8)
Smoking   0.563   1   0.480
 No 122 (73.9) 43 (26.1)   55 (70.5) 23 (29.5)   67 (77.0) 20 (23.0)  
 Yes 72 (69.9) 31 (30.1) 45 (70.3) 19 (29.7) 27 (69.2) 12 (30.8)
Daily exposure to direct sunlight   0.005   0.028   0.206
  ≤ 15 mins 81 (78.6)a 22 (21.4)a   43 (79.6)a 11 (20.4)a   38 (77.6) 11 (22.4)  
 16–60 min 64 (78.0)a 18 (22.0)a 26 (76.5)a,b 8 (23.5)a,b 38 (79.2) 10 (20.8)
  > 60 mins 49 (59.0)b 34(41.0)b 31 (57.4)b 23 (42.6)b 18 (62.1) 11 (37.9)
Use sunscreen   0.744   0.670   0.185
 No 142 (73.2) 52 (26.8)   95 (69.9) 41 (30.1)   47 (81.0) 11 (19.0)  
 Yes 52 (70.3) 22 (29.7) 5 (83.3) 1 (16.7) 47 (69.1) 21 (30.9)
BMI1 (Kg/m2)   0.242   0.479   0.008
 Underweight 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)   0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)  
 Normal 68 (68.0) 32 (32.0) 20 (76.9) 6 (23.1) 48 (64.9)b 26 (35.1)a
 Overweight 71 (71.7) 28 (28.3) 44 (65.7) 23 (34.3) 27 (84.4)a 5 (15.6)a
 Obese 55 (79.7) 14 (20.3) 36 (73.5) 13 (26.5) 19 (95.0)b 1 (5.0)a
Percent body fat 31.2 ± 7.5 27.2 ± 7.5 0.000 28.3 ± 6.6 25.6 ± 7.5 0.039 34.4 ± 7.0 29.3 ± 7.0 0.001
Waist circumference risky   0.012   0.581   0.003
 No 88 (65.2) 47 (34.8)   48 (67.6) 23 (32.4)   40 (62.5) 24 (37.5)  
 Yes2 106 (79.7) 27 (20.3) 52 (73.2) 19 (26.8) 54 (87.1) 8 (12.9)
  1. *The National Osteoporosis Foundation cutoffs were used to define vitamin D status (Sufficient: 25hydroxyvitamin D > 30 ng/mL and Insufficient: 25 hydroxyvitamin D ≤ 30 ng/mL)
  2. *Participants taking vitamin D supplements were excluded (n = 75)
  3. 1Body Mass Index
  4. 2 < 88 cm for women and < 102 cm for men [24]
  5. 3The P value reflects differences in vitamin D status
  6. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, the P value is < 0.05
  7. Comparisons of continuous and categorical variables were performed using independent sample T Test/Mann-Whitney-U-test and the chi square test /Fisher’s exact test, respectively