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Table 2 Association of socio-demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors with metabolic syndrome in employees of a private Lebanese university

From: The relationship between hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study among employees of a private university in Lebanon

Characteristic Total (n = 344) Men (n = 172) Women (n = 172)
No MetS MetS1 P value No MetS MetS P value No MetS MetS P value
mean ± SD or n(%)   mean ± SD or n(%)   mean ± SD or n(%)  
Age (years) 40.6 ± 11.3 49.0 ± 9.7 0.000 43.3 ± 12.5 49.9 ± 10.0 0.000 38.5 ± 10.0 46.7 ± 8.6 0.000
Marital status    0.227    0.813    0.362
 Single/ Separated/ Divorced 96 (80.7%) 23 (19.3%)   36 (67.9%) 17 (32.1%)   60 (90.9%) 6 (9.1%)  
 Married 167 (74.2%) 58 (25.8%)   77 (64.7%) 42 (35.3%)   90 (84.9%) 16 (15.1%)  
Education level    0.002    0.023    0.143
 High school / BT2 46 (61.3%) a 29 (38.7%) a   24 (50.0%) a 24 (50.0%) a   22 (81.5%) 5 (18.5%)  
 Bachelor degree 69 (79.3%) b 18 (20.7%) b   27 (75.0%) b 9 (25.0%) b   42 (82.4%) 9 (17.6%)  
 Graduate 148(81.3%) b 34 (18.7%) b   62 (70.5%) b 26 (29.5%) b   86 (91.5%) 8 (8.5%)  
Income ($)    0.001    0.023    0.168
  < 2250 73 (65.2%) a 39 (34.8%) a   32 (52.5%) a 29 (47.5%) a   41 (80.4%) 10 (19.6%)  
 2250–4000 75 (86.2%) b 12 (13.8%) b   25 (75.8%) b 8 (24.2%) b   50 (92.6%) 4 (7.4%)  
  > 4000 115 (79.3%) b 30 (20.7%) b   56 (71.8%) b 22 (28.2%) b   59 (88.1%) 8 (11.9%)  
Medical morbidity    0.000    0.004    0.000
 No 174 (86.1%) 28 (13.9%)   69 (75.8%) 22 (24.2%)   105 (94.6%) 6 (5.4%)  
 Yes 88 (62.4%) 53 (37.6%)   43 (53.8%) 37 (46.2%)   45 (73.8%) 16 (26.2%)  
Smoking    0.006    0.039    0.622
 No 173 (81.6%) 39 (18.4%)   68 (73.1%) 25 (26.9%)   105 (88.2%) 14 (11.8%)  
 Yes 90 (68.2%) 42 (31.8%)   45 (57.0%) 34 (43.0%)   45 (84.9%) 8 (15.1%)  
Alcohol drinking    0.654    1    0.377
 No 197 (77.3%) 58 (22.7%)   74 (66.1%) 38 (33.9%)   123 (86.0%) 20 (14.0%)  
 Yes 66 (74.2%) 23 (25.8%)   39 (65.0%) 21 (35.0%)   27 (93.1%) 2 (6.9%)  
Physical activity level    0.698    0.477    0.841
 Low 167 (75.6%) 54 (24.4%)   65 (63.1%) 38 (36.9%)   102 (86.4%) 16 (13.6%)  
 Moderate/High 96 (78.0%) 27 (22.0%)   48 (69.6%) 21 (30.4%)   48 (88.9%) 6 (11.1%)  
BMI (kg/m2)    0.000    0.000    0.000
 Underweight 2 (100.0%) a,b,c 0 (0.0%) a,b,c    2 (100.0%) a,b,c 0 (0.0%) a,b,c  
 Normal 122 (100.0%) c 0 (0.0%) c   27 (100%) a 0 (0.0%) a   95 (100.0%) c 0 (0.0%) c  
 Overweight 101 (77.7%) b 29 (22.3%) b   63 (73.3%) b 23 (26.7%) b   38 (86.4%) b 6 (13.6%) b  
 Obese 38 (42.2%) a 52 (57.8%) a   23 (39.0%) c 36 (61.0%) c   15 (48.4%) a 16 (51.6%) a  
  1. 1Metabolic Syndrome defined according the NCEP-ATP III [63]
  2. 2Baccalaureat Technique
  3. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, P < 0.05