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Table 2 Association of socio-demographic, anthropometric and lifestyle factors with metabolic syndrome in employees of a private Lebanese university

From: The relationship between hypovitaminosis D and metabolic syndrome: a cross sectional study among employees of a private university in Lebanon

Characteristic

Total (n = 344)

Men (n = 172)

Women (n = 172)

No MetS

MetS1

P value

No MetS

MetS

P value

No MetS

MetS

P value

mean ± SD or n(%)

 

mean ± SD or n(%)

 

mean ± SD or n(%)

 

Age (years)

40.6 ± 11.3

49.0 ± 9.7

0.000

43.3 ± 12.5

49.9 ± 10.0

0.000

38.5 ± 10.0

46.7 ± 8.6

0.000

Marital status

  

0.227

  

0.813

  

0.362

 Single/ Separated/ Divorced

96 (80.7%)

23 (19.3%)

 

36 (67.9%)

17 (32.1%)

 

60 (90.9%)

6 (9.1%)

 

 Married

167 (74.2%)

58 (25.8%)

 

77 (64.7%)

42 (35.3%)

 

90 (84.9%)

16 (15.1%)

 

Education level

  

0.002

  

0.023

  

0.143

 High school / BT2

46 (61.3%) a

29 (38.7%) a

 

24 (50.0%) a

24 (50.0%) a

 

22 (81.5%)

5 (18.5%)

 

 Bachelor degree

69 (79.3%) b

18 (20.7%) b

 

27 (75.0%) b

9 (25.0%) b

 

42 (82.4%)

9 (17.6%)

 

 Graduate

148(81.3%) b

34 (18.7%) b

 

62 (70.5%) b

26 (29.5%) b

 

86 (91.5%)

8 (8.5%)

 

Income ($)

  

0.001

  

0.023

  

0.168

  < 2250

73 (65.2%) a

39 (34.8%) a

 

32 (52.5%) a

29 (47.5%) a

 

41 (80.4%)

10 (19.6%)

 

 2250–4000

75 (86.2%) b

12 (13.8%) b

 

25 (75.8%) b

8 (24.2%) b

 

50 (92.6%)

4 (7.4%)

 

  > 4000

115 (79.3%) b

30 (20.7%) b

 

56 (71.8%) b

22 (28.2%) b

 

59 (88.1%)

8 (11.9%)

 

Medical morbidity

  

0.000

  

0.004

  

0.000

 No

174 (86.1%)

28 (13.9%)

 

69 (75.8%)

22 (24.2%)

 

105 (94.6%)

6 (5.4%)

 

 Yes

88 (62.4%)

53 (37.6%)

 

43 (53.8%)

37 (46.2%)

 

45 (73.8%)

16 (26.2%)

 

Smoking

  

0.006

  

0.039

  

0.622

 No

173 (81.6%)

39 (18.4%)

 

68 (73.1%)

25 (26.9%)

 

105 (88.2%)

14 (11.8%)

 

 Yes

90 (68.2%)

42 (31.8%)

 

45 (57.0%)

34 (43.0%)

 

45 (84.9%)

8 (15.1%)

 

Alcohol drinking

  

0.654

  

1

  

0.377

 No

197 (77.3%)

58 (22.7%)

 

74 (66.1%)

38 (33.9%)

 

123 (86.0%)

20 (14.0%)

 

 Yes

66 (74.2%)

23 (25.8%)

 

39 (65.0%)

21 (35.0%)

 

27 (93.1%)

2 (6.9%)

 

Physical activity level

  

0.698

  

0.477

  

0.841

 Low

167 (75.6%)

54 (24.4%)

 

65 (63.1%)

38 (36.9%)

 

102 (86.4%)

16 (13.6%)

 

 Moderate/High

96 (78.0%)

27 (22.0%)

 

48 (69.6%)

21 (30.4%)

 

48 (88.9%)

6 (11.1%)

 

BMI (kg/m2)

  

0.000

  

0.000

  

0.000

 Underweight

2 (100.0%) a,b,c

0 (0.0%) a,b,c

 

 

2 (100.0%) a,b,c

0 (0.0%) a,b,c

 

 Normal

122 (100.0%) c

0 (0.0%) c

 

27 (100%) a

0 (0.0%) a

 

95 (100.0%) c

0 (0.0%) c

 

 Overweight

101 (77.7%) b

29 (22.3%) b

 

63 (73.3%) b

23 (26.7%) b

 

38 (86.4%) b

6 (13.6%) b

 

 Obese

38 (42.2%) a

52 (57.8%) a

 

23 (39.0%) c

36 (61.0%) c

 

15 (48.4%) a

16 (51.6%) a

 
  1. 1Metabolic Syndrome defined according the NCEP-ATP III [63]
  2. 2Baccalaureat Technique
  3. Columns with superscripts without a common symbol differ, P < 0.05