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Table 1 General characteristics of study subjects, Korea National Health Examination and Nutritional Survey (KNHANES), Phase IV-V, 2008-2011

From: Associations of urinary sodium levels with overweight and central obesity in a population with a sodium intake

  Urinary sodium excretion levels (mg/day)  
  <  2300 2300-3199 3200 ≤ P-vauleb
Total population [N = 17,726] N (%) N (%) N (%)  
Age (years) a
  ≥ 19 1316 (8.1) 6261 (38.5) 8673 (53.4) < 0.01
 10 – 18 308 (20.9) 734 (49.7) 434 (29.4)  
Sub-population
Adults [N = 16,250]
 Sex
  Male 502 (7.2) 2646 (38.1) 3788 (54.6) < 0.01
  Female 814 (8.7) 3615 (38.8) 4885 (52.4)  
 Monthly household income (KRW)
   <  1,500,000 252 (7.6) 1148 (34.7) 1911 (57.7) < 0.01
  1,500,000–2,999,999 335 (8.3) 1499 (37.4) 2178 (54.3)  
  3,000,000–3,999,999 352 (8.0) 1750 (39.6) 2320 (52.4)  
   ≥ 4,000,000 363 (8.4) 1801 (41.5) 2178 (50.2)  
 Education status
  Below Middle school 613 (7.0) 3014 (34.6) 5087 (58.4) < 0.01
  High school 238 (7.8) 1243 (40.7) 1570 (51.5)  
  College 282 (10.6) 1187 (44.7) 1188 (44.7)  
  Highr than University 178 (10.0) 789 (44.4) 809 (45.5)  
Marital status
  Married 980 (6.9) 5287 (37.3) 7923 (55.8) < 0.01
  Single 333 (16.4) 965 (47.2) 737 (36.2)  
  Others 3 (15.8) 8 (42.1) 8 (42.1)  
 Drinking
  No 153 (6.5) 823 (35.0) 1377 (58.2) < 0.01
  Yes 1150 (8.3) 5391 (39.2) 7224 (52.5)  
 Smoking
  No 771 (8.1) 3676 (38.6) 5064 (53.2) 0.91
  Yes 531 (8.0) 2534 (38.4) 3532 (53.5)  
Physical activity
  No 877 (8.3) 4056 (38.4) 5627 (53.3) 0.23
  Yes 380 (7.8) 1941 (39.7) 2570 (52.5)  
 Hypertension
  No 931 (8.6) 4415 (40.9) 5447 (50.5) < 0.01
  Yes 385 (7.1) 1846 (33.8) 3226 (59.1)  
 Diabetes mellitus
  No 1138 (8.2) 5481 (39.6) 7234 (52.2) < 0.01
  Yes 178 (7.4) 780 (32.5) 1439 (60.0)  
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Diet Water intake (g/day) 972.8 ± 681.4 1002.4 ± 663.4 1010.3 ± 670.2 0.32
Diet Energy intake (kcal/day) 1894.4 ± 920.3 1968.1 ± 869.5 2007.4 ± 854.5 < 0.01
Diet Potassium intake (mg/day) 2910.1 ± 1567.2 3050.0 ± 1565.0 3180.3 ± 1584.1 < 0.01
Adolescents [N = 1476]
 Sex
  Male 147 (17.7) 394 (47.3) 288 (34.7) < 0.01
  Female 161 (24.9) 340 (52.5) 146 (22.6)  
 Physical activity
  No 83 (20.7) 198 (49.4) 120 (29.9) 0.19
  Yes 97 (16.8) 281 (48.8) 198 (24.4)  
 Hypertension
  No 308 (21.0) 731 (49.9) 426 (29.1) < 0.01
  Yes 0 (0) 3 (27.3) 8 (72.7)  
 Diabetes mellitus
  No 283 (21.1) 667 (49.7) 391 (29.2) 0.70
  Yes 25 (18.5) 67 (49.6) 43 (31.8)  
  Mean ± SD Mean ± SD Mean ± SD  
Diet Water intake (g/day) 854.6 ± 497.4 858.9 ± 464.1 941.8 ± 547.6 0.01
Diet Energy intake (kcal/day) 2123.3 ± 892.8 2109.4 ± 797.9 2392.2 ± 965.4 < 0.01
Diet Potassium intake (mg/day) 2542.6 ± 1385.7 2586.9 ± 1198.4 2966.9 ± 1436.9 < 0.01
  1. aAdults 19 years and older; Adolescents between 10 and 18 years
  2. bFor continuous variable, the ANOVA test was used. For categorical variables, the chi-square test was used