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Table 3 Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for different types of obesitya by urinary sodium excretion levels in adults and adolescents, Korea National Health Examination and Nutritional Survey (KNHANES), Phase IV-V, 2008-2011

From: Associations of urinary sodium levels with overweight and central obesity in a population with a sodium intake

Urinary sodium excretion levelsb (mg/day) Normal BMI & Normal WC Only Overweightc
Without Central obesityd
Only Central obesityd
Without Overweightc
Overweightc combined
With Central obesityd
N (%) N (%) OR (95% CI)e P f N (%) OR (95% CI)e Pf N (%) OR (95% CI)e P f
Adultsc [N = 6722] [N = 3585]    [N = 502]    [N = 5441]   
  < 2200 757 (11.3) 260 (7.2) 1.00   26 (5.2) 1.00   273 (5.0) 1.00  
 2200-3199 2952 (43.9) 1463 (40.8) 1.37 (1.14-1.65) 0.02 168 (33.5) 1.43 (0.85-2.40) 0.06 1678 (30.8) 1.63 (1.35-1.98) 0.03
  ≥ 3200 3013 (44.8) 1862 (51.9) 1.63 (1.35-1.98) < 0.01 308 (61.3) 2.36 (1.41-3.94) < 0.01 3490 (53.1) 2.95 (2.49-3.49) < 0.01
Adolescentsc [N = 1140] [N = 171]    [N = 13]    [N = 152]   
  < 2200 283 (24.8) 16 (9.4) 1.00   0 (0) 1.00   9 (5.9) 1.00  
 2200-3199 613 (53.8) 63 (36.8) 1.97 (0.79-2.40) 0.26 8 (61.5) N/A N/A 50 (32.9) 1.11 (0.49-2.51) 0.09
  ≥ 3200 244 (21.4) 92 (53.8) 6.90 (3.25-14.63) < 0.01 5 (38.5) N/A N/A 93 (61.2) 5.28 (2.24-12.40) < 0.01
  1. a Adiposity status in all populations were classified into four groups, including normal WC and normal BMI, Only overweight without central obesity, only central obesity without overweight and overweight combined with central obesity
  2. b 24 h-urinary sodium excretion levels estimated by Tanaka equation
  3. c Overweight in adults and adolescents was defined as BMI ≥ 23.0 kg/m2 based on Asian BMI guideline proposed by the WHO Western Pacific Region [22]
  4. d Central obesity in adults was defined as WC ≥ 90 cm in men and ≥ 80 cm in women, based on the criterion of modified NECP ATP- III guideline in Asians [24]; the central obesity in adolescents was defined as sex-specific WC ≥ 90 percentile based on the criterion of International Diabetes Federation (IDF) [25]
  5. e Adjusted for age and sex, energy intake (per day), water intake (per day), potassium intake (per day), and physical activity
  6. fP-value