Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants of each ethnic subgroup by diabetes status

From: Relationship of serum Vitamin D concentrations with Adipokines and Cardiometabolic risk among non-Hispanic black type 2 diabetic and non-diabetic subjects: a cross-sectional study

Variables Haitian Americans African Americans
without T2D
(n = 102)
with T2D
(n = 95)
P-value without T2D
(n = 103)
with T2D
(n = 97)
P-value
Age (years) 54.1 ± 10.6 58.3 ± 9.9 0.005 51.1 ± 8.3 54.6 ± 10.1 0.008
Gender F (%) 51 (50.0) 51 (53.7) 0.605 51 (49.5) 47 (48.5) 0.881
Smoke n (%) 6 (5.9) 5 (5.3) 0.850 45 (43.7) 36 (37.1) 0.344
Energy intake kcal (kcal/d) 2042.0 ± 1205.0 1589.2 ± 968.9 0.004 2843.6 ± 1971.6 2106.1 ± 1341.1 0.002
BMI (kg/m2) 29.2 ± 5.1 29.1 ± 4.4 0.875 30.9 ± 6.0 35.4 ± 8.2 < 0.001
Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m2) (%) 41 (40.2) 41 (43.2) 0.673 56 (54.4) 72 (74.2) 0.030
WC (cm) 96.8 ± 12.8 99.2 ± 11.4 0.172 101.4 ± 14.0 113.9 ± 17.2 < 0.001
HbA1C (%) 6.1 ± .8 8.4 ± 2.6 < 0.001 5.9 ± .5 7.7 ± 2.0 < 0.001
log HOMA2-IR 0.2 ± .5 0.1 ± .6 0.432 0.3 ± .7 0.5 ± .7 0.030
HOMA2-IS 95.7 ± 51.7 102.5 ± 53.4 0.367 91.2 ± 54.8 74.7 ± 44.7 0.021
TC (mg/dL) 199.1 ± 42.5 188.3 ± 39.1 0.067 192.4 ± 40.0 186.0 ± 40.6 0.265
LDL-c (mg/dL) 125.3 ± 40.6 113.6 ± 33.0 0.029 117.5 ± 36.8 111.1 ± 37.9 0.226
HDL-c (mg/dL) 52.0 ± 14.1 54.0 ± 15.4 0.337 51.6 ± 13.9 49.4 ± 13.5 0.262
TG (mg/dL) 108.8 ± 64.6 103.3 ± 52.3 0.515 116.4 ± 57.3 127.6 ± 65.0 0.200
SBP (mmHg) 145.6 ± 24.2 146.3 ± 26.2 0.840 133.6 ± 17.8 141.4 ± 19.3 0.003
DBP (mmHg) 90.7 ± 12.4 89.9 ± 13.9 0.686 88.8 ± 13.0 89.5 ± 11.3 0.667
log Leptin (pg/mL) 9.8 ± .9 9.7 ± 1.2 0.221 9.9 ± 1.0 10.1 ± .8 0.157
IL-6 (pg/mL) 4.4 ± 6.7 5.9 ± 8.9 0.168 7.5 ± 5.6 10.9 ± 16.7 0.049
Adiponectin (ng/mL) 17.1 ± 10.8 16.6 ± 9.8 0.745 22.8 ± 12.8 27.7 ± 18.5 0.032
Vitamin D intake (IU/d) 405.5 ± 387.3 321.3 ± 284.9 0.085 584.9 ± 470.5 440.5 ± 361.7 0.016
25(OH)D (nmol/L) 53.7 ± 16.3 56.8 ± 21.3 0.255 59.9 ± 24.4 48.8 ± 23.1 0.001
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated. Abbreviations: T2D type 2 diabetes; BMI body mass index; WC waist circumference; HbA1C hemoglobin A1C; HOMA2-IR homeostasis model assessment version 2 of insulin resistance; HOMA2-IS homeostasis model assessment version 2 of insulin sensitivity; TC total cholesterol; LDL-c low density lipoprotein cholesterol; HDL-c high density lipoprotein cholesterol; SBP systolic blood pressure; DBP diastolic blood pressure; IL-6 interleukin 6; 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D. P-value is significant at < 0.05.