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Table 1 Prevalence of stunting in children under five by characteristics of children (n = 4937)

From: Factors associated with stunting among children below five years of age in Zambia: evidence from the 2014 Zambia demographic and health survey

Characteristics Children with stunting Children without stunting p- value
Sex of Child
 Male 2626 (42.4) 3562 (57.6) < 0.001
 Female 2311 (37.6) 3828 (62.4)
Age of Mother (years)
 15–19 343 (43.9) 438 (56.1) 0.146
 20–24 1200 (41.8) 1531 (58.2)
 25–29 1154 (39.4) 1777 (60.6)
 30–34 944 (39.4) 1453 (60.6)
 35–39 601 (37.9) 984 (62.1)
 40–44 308 (38.5) 491 (61.5)
 45–49 65 (35.1) 119 (64.9)
Mother’s Level of Education
 No Education 585 (44.1) 725 (55.4) < 0.001
 Primary (grade 1–7) 2738 (42.0) 3780 (58.0)
 Secondary (grade 8–12) 1230 (36.9) 2104 (63.1)
 Higher (college or university) 74 (18.1) 333 (81.9)
Residence
 Urban 1491 (36.0) 2649 (64.0) < 0.001
 Rural 3447 (42.1) 4741 (57.9)
Wealth Status
 Poor 2566 (44.6) 3192 (55.4) < 0.001
 Middle 1047 (40.2) 1557 (59.8)
 Rich 1325 (33.4) 2641 (66.6)
Source of Drinking Water
 Improved 2459 (37) 4125 (63) < 0.001
 Non-improved 1958 (44) 2519 (56)
Place of Delivery
 Home 1572 (44.1) 1996 (55.9) < 0.001
 Government/public sector 2687 (38) 4391 (62.0)
 Private mission Hospital 196 (36.8) 336 (63.2)
 Other 49 (44.0) 603 (56.0)
Type of delivery assistance
 Health Professional 2726 (37.7) 4507 (62.3) < 0.001
 TBA 842 (44.1) 1068 (55.9)
 Relative or Other 762(43.5) 989 (56.5)
 No One 170 (45.1) 207 (54.9)
Duration of Breastfeeding (months)
 0–6 78 (47.1) 87 (52.9) < 0.001
 7–12 212 (40.2) 315 (59.8)
 13–18 955 (40.9) 1381 (59.1)
 19–47 1711 (43.3) 2242 (56.7)
 Never Breast fed 1777 (43.3) 2324 (56.7)
 Still Breastfeeding 1415 (35.0) 2622 (65.0)
U5 children in H/H
 1 or 2 3794 (39.8) 5741 (60.2) 0.3937
 3–5 1060 (40.6) 1550 (59.4)
 6+ 33 (53.3) 29 (46.7)
Child’s age (months)
 < 6 141(13.6) 891(86.4) < 0.001
 6–11 380(31.9) 811(68.1)
 13–23 1212(48.4) 1294 (51.6)
 24–35 1249(51) 1201(49)
 36–47 1038(41.6) 1459(58.4)
 48–59 919 (34.6) 1734(65.4)