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Table 2 Crude and adjusted measures of the effect of independent variables on stunting in children aged 0–59 months

From: Factors associated with stunting among children below five years of age in Zambia: evidence from the 2014 Zambia demographic and health survey

Characteristics Crude OR (95%CI) Adjusted OR (95%CI)
Sex of Child
 Male 1 1
 Female 0.85 (0.78–0.92)* 0.80 (0.73, 0.88)*
Age of Mother (years)
 15–19 1 1
 20–24 0.95 (0.79–1.12) 0.83 (0.69–1.00)
 25–29 0.85 (0.71–1.02) 0.73 (0.60–0.89)
 30–34 0.86 (0.72–1.04) 0.73 (0.60–0.89)
 35–39 0.80 (0.66–0.98)* 0.64 (0.52–0.80)*
 40–44 0.85 (0.68–1.05) 0.65 (0.51–0.83)*
 45–49 0.74 (0.50–1.09) 0.60(0.40–91)
Mother’s Level of Education
 No Education ( 1 1
 Primary (grade 1–7) 0.93 (0.8–1.08) 0.93(0.79–1.10)
 Secondary (grade 8–12) 0.74 (0.63–0.87)* 0.84 (0.70–1.02)
 Higher (college and university) 0.26 (0.18–0.38)* 0.35 (0.23–0.55)*
Residence
 Urban 1 1
 Rural 1.32 (1.18–1.47)* 0.78 (0.68–0.92)*
Wealth Index
 Poor 1 1
 Middle 0.84 (0.75–0.95)* 0.84(0.74–0.96)
 Rich 0.61 (0.54–0.69)* 0.69(0.57–0.82)*
Source of Drinking Water
 Improved 1  
 Non-improved 1.31 (1.19–1.44)* 1.13 (1.02–1.26)
Place of Delivery
 Home 1 1
 Gov public sector 0.77 (0.7–0.85)* 0.88 (0.68–1.15)
 Private mission Hospital 0.71 (0.57–0.88) 0.84 (0.60–1.17)
 Other 0.96 (0.63–1.47) 0.94 (0.60–1.48)
Type of delivery assistance
 Health Professional 1 1
 TBA 1.31 (1.16–1.48)* 0.98 (0.77–1.25)
 Relative or Other 1.29 (1.14–1.46)* 0.98 (0.74–1.32)
 No One 1.30 (1.03–1.65) 1.04 (0.72–1.51)
Duration of Breastfeeding (months)
 0–6 1 1
 7–12 0.75 (0.51–1.12) 0.67 (0.44–1.01)
 13–18 0.77 (0.52–1.12) 0.65 (0.44–0.96)
 19–47 0.86 (0.59–1.28) 0.69 (0.46–1.04)
Never Breast fed 0.86 (0.59–1.28) 0.97 (0.55–1.70)
 Still breastfeeding 0.60 (0.41–0.89) 0.65 (0.42–1.00)
U5 children in H/H
 1 or 2 1 1
 3–5 1.04 (0.94–1.17) 1.1 (0.96–1.22)
 6+ 1.45(0.67–3.13) 1.71(0.79–3.71)
Child age (months)
 < 6 1 1
 6–11 2.22 (1.63–3.01)* 3.22 (2.44–4.25)*
 13–23 4.31 (3.2–5.8)* 4.52 (5.03–8.84)*
 24–35 5.16 (4.04–6.61*) 5.88 (5.26–9.75)*
 36–47 7.84 (6.09–10.1)* 8.97 (3.76–7.20)*
 48–59 6.85 (5.42–8.65)* 8.3 (2.76–5.18)*