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Table 3 – Interventions targeting fat consumption

From: The impact of food reformulation on nutrient intakes and health, a systematic review of modelling studies

Author (year) Study Characteristics Study Outcomes
Model type Time horizon Target foods Type of intervention(s) Voluntary/mandatory Reduction in individual intake Reduction/increase in the incidence of clinical outcomes Results on QOL measures
Food and Drink Industry Ireland (2016) [26] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled 10 Food macrocategories Reformulation based on actual FDII voluntary programme Mandatory extension of existing programme 1.67 SFA g/day (5.5%) in adults
Voluntary 0.47 SFA g/day(1.50%) in adults
Leroy et al. (2016) [32] Epidemiological 1y F&V, bread, meat, fish, sandwiches, sauces Strong reformulation based on the Choices Programme criteria Mandatory 14.8% daily SFA intake Fatal CVD/Strokes deaths averted: 1339
Cancer deaths averted: 558
Mild reformulation based on the Choices Programme criteria Mandatory 11.7% daily SFA intake CVD/Strokes and Cancer: 2408 deaths averted (3.7%) - due to total reductions in Na, SFA and sugar consumption combined
Masset et al. (2016) [25] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Pizza Reformulation to meet Nestlè Nutrient Profiling targets Mandatory 0.3 SFA g/day (1.1%)
Pearson-Stuttard et al. (2016) [33] Epidemiological 10y All processed food ↓100% (Total ban) on industrial TFA Mandatory ↓100% industrial TFA ➔ approx. 0.4% of daily energy intake from ruminant TFA CHD deaths averted or postponed: 1700 (UI = 1619–1825)
LYG: 15000 (UI: 13952–16,934)
Allen et al. (2015) [44] Epidemiological 6y All processed foods ↓100% (Total ban) on industrial TFA Mandatory ↓100% industrial TFA ➔ approx. 0.4% of daily energy intake from ruminant TFA CHD deaths averted or postponed: 7200 (UI = 3200–12,500; 2.6%) 7900 QALYs gained (UI = 3000–13,900)
Combris et al. (2011) [8] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Breakfast cereals Mild to strong reformulation based on food nutrient distribution Mandatory 0.032–0.172 fat g/day (1.40–7.5%)
Biscuits/ pastries 0.0162–0.061 fat g/day (1.40–5.30%)
Bread-based products 0.009–0.229 fat g/day (0.40–9.90%)
Temme et al. (2011) [11] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled Potato-products, bread, pastry, cakes and biscuits (excluding foods made with butter); (meat) snacks and salads, fats and margarines ↓ 300% TFA in potato products for frying; 33% in bread; 75% in pastry, cakes and biscuits; 67% for meat snacks and salads Mandatory 0.4 TFA g/day (21.1%, UI = 0.35–0.45)
Roodenburg et al. (2009) [27] Mathematical/statistical Not modelled All packaged foods Reformulation set to meet Choices Programme criteria Mandatory 40% SFA daily intake (32% adjusting for energy compensation)
63% TFA daily intake (58% adjusting for energy compensation)
  1. Abbreviations: CHD – Coronary Heart Disease, CVD – Cardiovascular diseases, FDII – Food and Drink Industry Ireland, F&V – fruit and vegetables, LYG – Life Years Gained, Na – sodium, QALY – Quality Adjusted Life Year, SFA – Saturated Fatty Acids, TFA – Trans Fatty Acids: UI – Uncertainty Interval