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Table 1 Stunting trend by residence, mother’s education, wealth quintile, development and ecological regions

From: Trends and inequalities in stunting in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of four Nepal demographic health surveys from 2001 to 2016

Characteristics 2001 95%CI 2006 95%CI 2011 95%CI 2016 95%CI
n % (Lower-Upper) n % (Lower-Upper) n % (Lower-Upper) n % (Lower-Upper)
Type of place of residence
Rural 3503 58.23 57.02–59.43 2362 51.10 49.74–52.45 948 41.82 39.88–43.76 459 40.19 38.24–42.15
Urban 182 42.74 41.53–43.94 231 36.30 35.00–37.60 58 26.69 24.95–28.43 409 31.98 30.12–33.83
Mother’s education
No education 2836 61.46 60.27–62.65 1771 57.72 56.39–59.06 549 47.64 45.67–49.60 378 45.72 43.74–47.71
Primary 452 50.50 49.28–51.72 426 46.27 44.92–47.62 195 40.56 38.63–42.49 174 36.74 34.82–38.66
Secondary 224 41.74 40.54–42.95 294 29.68 28.44–30.91 203 30.63 28.82–32.44 225 29.98 28.16–31.81
Higher 78 34.80 33.63–35.96 19 15.98 14.99–16.97 29 22.83 21.18–24.48 67 21.10 19.48–22.73
Wealth quintiles
 Poorest 1096 67.62 66.48–68.76 812 61.60 60.28–62.91 549 55.97 54.01–57.92 244 49.21 47.22–51.20
 Poorer 863 61.26 60.07–62.45 614 54.85 53.51–56.20 195 45.70 43.74–47.66 204 38.69 36.75–40.63
 Middle 700 54.29 53.07–55.51 541 50.35 49.00–51.70 203 34.54 32.67–36.41 196 35.69 33.78–37.60
 Richer 639 53.06 51.84–54.28 382 39.77 38.45–41.09 29 30.52 28.71–32.33 170 32.43 30.57–34.30
 Richest 387 42.11 40.91–43.32 243 31.01 29.75–32.26 86 25.80 24.08–27.52 53 16.47 14.99–17.95
Development region
 Eastern 759 50.84 49.62–52.06 467 40.25 38.92–41.57 221 36.97 35.07–38.87 177 32.59 30.73–34.46
 Central 1233 58.47 57.27–59.68 854 50.05 48.7–51.4.00 294 38.20 36.29–40.11 301 34.68 32.78–36.57
 Western 690 57.49 56.28–58.70 492 50.43 49.08–51.78 174 37.40 35.49–39.30 174 37.46 35.53–39.39
 Mid-western 603 62.00 60.82–63.19 383 57.93 56.59–59.26 188 50.32 48.36–52.29 140 41.96 39.99–43.92
 Far-western 399 59.93 58.73–61.12 397 52.54 51.20–53.89 129 46.42 44.46–48.38 76 35.87 33.96–37.78
Ecological zone
 Mountain 324 66.31 65.16–67.47 279 62.31 61.00–63.62 104 52.90 50.94–54.86 80 46.79 44.81–48.78
 Hill 1609 59.77 58.57–60.97 1089 50.37 49.02–51.72 417 42.08 40.14–44.02 283 32.34 30.47–34.20
 Terai 1752 53.72 52.50–54.93 1225 46.24 44.90–47.59 485 37.42 35.51–39.32 505 36.73 34.81–38.65
  1. “n” referred to frequency of “stunted children” under 5 years only. Children who slept in the household the night before the survey and who have complete information on date of birth were selected for analysis for the year 2001, 2006 and 2011. For 2016, children who slept in the household the night before the survey only were selected. Data weighted according to DHS recommendations [13]