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Table 2 Association between stunting and residence, region, mother’s education and socio-economic status

From: Trends and inequalities in stunting in Nepal: a secondary data analysis of four Nepal demographic health surveys from 2001 to 2016

Characteristics 2001 2006 2011 2016
COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI) COR (95%CI) AOR (95%CI)
Type of place of residence P < 0.001 P = 0.219 P < 0.001 P = 0.384 P < 0.001 P = 0.183 P = 0.001 P = 0.572
Rural 1.87 (1.58,2.2) 1.13 (0.93,1.36) 1.83 (1.52,2.2) 1.1 (0.89,1.37) 1.97 (1.53,2.55) 1.24 (0.9,1.69) 1.43 (1.16,1.77) 1.06 (0.86,1.32)
Urban 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Mother’s education P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.116 P < 0.001 P < 0.001
No education 2.99 (2.26,3.95) 2.27 (1.7,3.05) 7.18 (3.75,13.73) 5.22 (2.54,10.74) 3.08 (1.74,5.43) 1.81 (0.92,3.55) 3.15 (2.22,4.46) 1.92 (1.28,2.89)
Primary 1.91 (1.37,2.67) 1.54 (1.09,2.17) 4.53 (2.35,8.74) 3.54 (1.73,7.23) 2.31 (1.25,4.27) 1.55 (0.77,3.12) 2.17 (1.51,3.12) 1.34 (0.91,1.98)
Secondary 1.34 (0.97,1.86) 1.23 (0.88,1.72) 2.22 (1.15,4.28) 1.99 (0.97,4.07) 1.49 (0.81,2.73) 1.27 (0.66,2.42) 1.6 (1.13,2.26) 1.25 (0.86,1.81)
Higher 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Wealth Quintiles P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.083
Poorest 2.87 (2.37,3.48) 1.9 (1.55,2.33) 3.57 (2.84,4.49) 1.87 (1.36,2.58) 3.65 (2.58,5.18) 2.47 (1.51,4.02) 4.91 (3.39,7.12) 4.18 (2.6,6.71)
Poorer 2.17 (1.83,2.58) 1.43 (1.18,1.74) 2.7 (2.22,3.3) 1.67 (1.3,2.13) 2.42 (1.68,3.5) 1.7 (1.04,2.78) 3.2 (2.19,4.67) 2.6 (1.66,4.07)
Middle 1.63 (1.38,1.94) 1.14 (0.95,1.36) 2.26 (1.76,2.89) 1.54 (1.17,2.02) 1.52 (1,2.31) 1.15 (0.71,1.88) 2.81 (1.9,4.17) 1.99 (1.28,3.1)
Richer 1.55 (1.31,1.84) 1.16 (0.97,1.39) 1.47 (1.19,1.82) 1.15 (0.9,1.46) 1.26 (0.85,1.88) 1.05 (0.69,1.6) 2.43 (1.64,3.6) 1.82 (1.14,2.89)
Richest 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Development regions P < 0.001 P = 0.011 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.009 P = 0.630 P = 0.214 P = 0.014
Central 1.36 (1.12,1.66) 1.33 (1.11,1.59) 1.49 (1.14,1.94) 1.51 (1.2,1.89) 1.05 (0.75,1.48) 0.99 (0.68,1.45) 1.1 (0.85,1.42) 1.11 (0.84,1.45)
Western 1.31 (1.03,1.67) 1.45 (1.14,1.83) 1.51 (1.17,1.95) 1.76 (1.38,2.25) 1.02 (0.7,1.47) 1.04 (0.7,1.54) 1.24 (0.87,1.77) 1.5 (1.06,2.11)
Mid-western 1.58 (1.28,1.94) 1.26 (1,1.57) 2.04 (1.59,2.63) 1.71 (1.33,2.19) 1.73 (1.18,2.54) 1.28 (0.87,1.87) 1.49 (1.06,2.1) 1.3 (0.91,1.85)
Far-western 1.45 (1.14,1.84) 1.13 (0.86,1.49) 1.64 (1.28,2.11) 1.26 (1.01,1.56) 1.48 (1.02,2.14) 1.11 (0.74,1.66) 1.16 (0.83,1.62) 0.91 (0.64,1.29)
Eastern 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
Ecological zones P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P < 0.001 P = 0.012 P < 0.001 P = 0.167 P = 0.005 P = 0.003
Mountain 1.7 (1.42,2.03) 1.47 (1.22,1.76) 1.92 (1.5,2.47) 1.55 (1.16,2.08) 1.88 (1.4,2.52) 1.2 (0.87,1.66) 1.51 (1.07,2.15) 0.98 (0.65,1.47)
Hill 1.28 (1.08,1.51) 1.18 (1,1.38) 1.18 (0.96,1.44) 1.2 (0.98,1.45) 1.22 (0.96,1.55) 0.91 (0.7,1.2) 0.82 (0.66,1.03) 0.67 (0.5,0.89)
Terai 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
  1. Children who slept in the household the night before the survey and who have complete information on date of birth were selected for analysis for the year 2001, 2006 and 2011. For 2016, children who slept in the household the night before the survey only were selected. Data weighted according to DHS recommendations [13]