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Table 3 Nutritional status, anemia, and micronutrient deficiencies at baseline and 5 months (follow-up) in female Cambodian garment workers by groupa

From: Impact of lunch provision on anthropometry, hemoglobin, and micronutrient status of female Cambodian garment workers: exploratory randomized controlled trial

  Group
Intervention Control
Underweightb (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2)
 Baseline 29/86 (34) 25/86 (29)
 At 5 months 25/86 (29) 23/86 (27)
Normalc (BMI ≥18.5 and < 25.0 kg/m2)
 Baseline 54/86 (63) 58/86 (67)
 At 5 months 57/86 (66) 60/86 (70)
Overweight (BMI ≥25.0 and < 30.0 kg/m2)
 Baseline 3/86 (3) 3/86 (3)
 At 5 months 4/86 (5) 3/86 (3)
Anemiad, e (Hb < 12.0 g/dL)
 Baseline 19/85 (22) 23/85 (27)
 At 5 months 19/85 (22) 22/86 (26)
Iron deficiencyf (FERg < 15 μg/L)
 Baseline 15/84 (18) 21/84 (25)
 At 5 months 17/85 (20) 13/86 (15)
Marginal iron storesf (FERg ≥ 15 and < 50 μg/L)
 Baseline 49/84 (58) 35/84 (42)
 At 5 months 48/85 (56) 46/86 (54)
Tissue iron deficiencyf (sTfR > 8.3 mg/L)
 Baseline 7/84 (8) 10/84 (12)
 At 5 months 5/85 (6) 11/86 (13)
Iron deficiency anemiaf (Hb < 12.0 g/dL and FERg < 15 μg/L)
 Baseline 8/84 (10) 12/84 (14)
 At 5 months 8/85 (9) 9/86 (10)
Vitamin A deficiencyf (RBPg < 0.70 μmol/L)
 Baseline 0/84 (0) 0/84 (0)
 At 5 months 0/85 (0) 0/86 (0)
Marginal vitamin A deficiencyf (RBPg ≥ 0.70 and < 1.05 μmol/L)
 Baseline 7/84 (8) 3/84 (4)
 At 5 months 8/85 (9) 7/86 (8)
Folate deficiencyh (< 3 ng/mL)
 Baseline 0/78 (0) 0/74 (0)
 At 5 months 0/84 (0) 0/84 (0)
Marginal folate deficiencyh (≥3 and < 6 ng/mL)
 Baseline 21/78 (27) 24/74 (32)
 At 5 months 10/84 (12) 18/84 (21)
Vitamin B12 deficiencyi (< 148 pmol/L)
 Baseline 0/83 (0) 1/84 (1)
 At 5 months NA NA
Marginal vitamin B12 deficiencyi (≥148 and < 222 pmol/L)
 Baseline 2/83 (2) 5/84 (6)
 At 5 months NA NA
  1. BMI Body mass index, Hb Hemoglobin, FER Ferritin, sTfR Soluble transferrin receptor, RBP Retinol-binding protein, NA Not available
  2. aValues are n/total n (%)
  3. bThereof mild underweight (BMI ≥17.0 and < 18.5 kg/m2): at baseline n = 21/n = 18 (intervention/control), at 5 months n = 19/n = 14; moderate underweight (BMI ≥16.0 and < 17.0 kg/m2): at baseline n = 6/n = 4, at 5 months n = 5/n = 6; severe underweight (BMI < 16.0 kg/m2): at baseline n = 2/n = 3, at 5 months n = 1/n = 3
  4. cThereof low-normal BMI (BMI ≥18.5 and < 20.0 kg/m2): at baseline n = 24/n = 24, at 5 months n = 21/n = 24
  5. dAt baseline total n = 170 (n = 1/n = 1 refused blood sampling). At 5 months total n = 171 (n = 1 intervention participant refused blood sampling)
  6. eThereof mild anemia (Hb ≥11.0 and < 12.0 g/dL): at baseline n = 13/n = 16, at 5 months n = 16/n = 14; moderate anemia (Hb ≥8.0 and < 11.0 g/dL): at baseline n = 6/n = 7, at 5 months n = 3/n = 8
  7. fAt baseline total n = 168 (n = 1/n = 1 refused blood sampling, n = 1/n = 1 with missing aliquot). At 5 months total n = 171 (n = 1 intervention participant refused blood sampling)
  8. gValues adjusted for subclinical inflammation
  9. hAt baseline total n = 152 (n = 1/n = 1 refused blood sampling, n = 1/n = 1 with missing aliquot, n = 6/n = 10 with deviating duplicate measurement). At 5 months total n = 168 (n = 1 intervention participant refused blood sampling, n = 1/n = 2 with deviating duplicate measurement)
  10. iAt baseline total n = 167 (n = 1/n = 1 refused blood sampling, n = 2/n = 1 with missing aliquot). Values for vitamin B12 not available at 5 months