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Table 2 Prevalence of stunting (<−2SD) among children aged 0–59 months

From: Determinants of stunting among children aged 0–59 months in Nepal: findings from Nepal Demographic and health Survey, 2006, 2011, and 2016

  2006 2011 2016
% N % N % N
Total (mean z score and SD) 49.3 (−1.93; 1.3) 5083 40.5 (−1.66; 1.4) 2485 35.8 (−1.29; 4.9) 2421
Household characteristics
Family size
 Less than 5 43.2 1247 38.9 693 29.3 727
 5 and above 51.0 3836 41.1 1792 38.7 1694
Headship of the households
 Male 48.7 4052 41.2 1828 36.2 1652
 Female 50.9 1031 38.7 657 35.0 769
Caste/ethnicity
 Dalit 56.5 788 47.0 440 38.7 342
 Muslim 56.6 286 31.0 147 37.2 164
Janajati 44.9 1608 40.4 794 32.2 661
 Other Terai caste 50.3 713 45.9 230 42.3 479
 Brahmin/chhetri 47.8 1444 36.8 734 34.6 629
 Other 48.5 244 41.0 140 28.3 146
Wealth quintile
 Poorest 61.2 1285 56.0 640 49.2 496
 Second poorest 54.4 1086 45.7 510 38.7 528
 Middle 50.6 1032 34.5 582 35.7 549
 Second richest 39.7 921 30.5 421 32.4 526
 Richest 30.5 759 25.8 332 16.5 322
Place of residence
 Urban 35.8 619 26.7 217 32.0 1280
 Rural 51.0 4464 41.8 2268 40.2 1141
Ecological Zone
 Mountain 61.2 425 52.9 196 46.8 170
 Hill 50.2 2100 42.1 991 32.3 876
Terai 46.2 2558 37.4 1298 36.7 1375
Household food security status
 Food secure NA   33.2 1061 29.2 991
 Mildly food insecure NA   41.2 305 35.9 557
 Moderately food insecure NA   45.6 577 42.0 623
 Severely food insecure NA   49.0 542 46.5 250
Access of drinking water
 Unimproved 51.2 1296 48.9 361 43.3 112
 Improved 48.4 3787 39.1 2124 35.5 2309
Access of toilet
 Unimproved 53.9 3659 45.0 1415 48.9 581
 Improved 36.9 1424 34.6 1070 31.7 1840
Maternal characteristics
Age of mother
 15–19 33.6 333 27.9 170 37.4 194
 20–24 45.4 1761 39.8 908 32.5 863
 25–29 49.2 1595 38.7 740 34.8 767
 30 and above 58.6 1394 46.7 667 41.6 597
Years of schooling of mother
 No schooling 57.3 3119 46.9 1256 45.3 910
 1–5 years schooling 45.7 858 41.7 442 36.4 449
 6–9 years schooling 31.9 788 32.1 464 31.7 563
 10 and above years of schooling 20.1 318 25.9 323 22.7 499
Number of living children
 Up to 1 children 34.0 1104 31.9 680 28.0 725
 2 children 46.0 1614 38.5 751 32.0 841
 3 and more children 58.3 2365 47.5 1054 46.2 855
Mother Employment
 No 42.7 1580 37.5 1116 31.7 1240
 Yes 52.0 3503 42.9 1369 40.2 1181
Mother BMI
 less than 18.5/underweight 47.2 3797 38.6 1935 33.6 1901
 18.5 and above 54.7 1284 47.1 469 44.5 452
Mother anemia
 No 48.1 3027 39.8 1476 35.4 1271
 Yes 50.9 2023 41.2 902 35.8 1074
Child characteristics
Age of child
 Less than 6 months 11.5 474 19.4 228 13.5 218
 6–11 months 23.65 484 15.9 247 18.9 251
 12–23 months 47.5 970 34.8 489 37.4 512
 25–49 months 59.2 3155 49.5 1521 41.6 1440
Sex of child
 Boys 48.6 2604 41.4 1273 36.0 1258
 Girls 49.7 2479 39.5 1212 35.7 1163
Birth order
 First 40.6 1378 34.2 781 31.4 791
 Second 44.9 1266 39.2 592 30.1 657
 Third and above 56.1 2439 45.6 1112 43.3 973
Size at the time of birth
 Average or larger 46.9 4109 38.4 2061 34.0 2031
 Below average 59.1 974 50.7 424 45.5 391
Anemia
 No 53.6 2284 41.4 1172 34.7 1022
 Yes 53.9 2191 45.2 1008 40.9 1137
  1. Note: Only % for stunning are reported for each category. So, the total will not be 100% because for each category % of non-stunning are not included in this table, see more on Additional files 1, 2 and 3.