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Table 3 Determinants of stunting in children aged 0–59 months

From: Determinants of stunting among children aged 0–59 months in Nepal: findings from Nepal Demographic and health Survey, 2006, 2011, and 2016

Background characteristics Odd ratios of stunting (height for age < −2SD)
2006 2011 2016
Household characteristics Unadjusted (OR, P/ CI) Adjusted (OR, P/ CI) Unadjusted (OR, P/CI) Adjusted (OR, P/CI) Unadjusted (OR, P/CI) Adjusted (OR, P/CI)
 Family size 1.37** [1.16–1.62] 1.15 [0.95–1.38] 1.01 [0.86–1.40] 0.87 [0.62–1.21] 1.52** [1.22–1.90] 1.39* [1.06–1.83]
Headship of the households
 Male (R)
 Female 1.09 [0.91–1.31] 1.01 [0.82–1.24] 0.90 [0.71–1.14] 0.85 [0.64–1.14] 0.95 [0.77–1.17] 1.06 [0.84–1.35]
Caste/ethnicity
 Dalit(R)
 Muslim 1.00 [0.74–1.35] 1.21 [0.82–1.80] 0.50 [0.30–0.85] 0.55 [0.27–1.14] 0.94 [0.60–1.47] 1.04 [0.61–1.78]
Janajati 0.63 [0.48–0.83] 0.73 [0.53–0.99] 0.76 [0.56–1.04] 0.89 [0.61–1.29] 0.75 [0.53–1.08] 1.01 [0.69–1.47]
 Other Terai caste 0.78 [0.59–1.03] 0.96 [0.69–1.33] 0.95 [0.63–1.43] 1.56 [1.04–1.33] 1.16 [0.81–1.66] 1.18 [0.74–1.91]
 Brahmin/chhetri 0.70 [0.57–0.89] 0.94 [0.69–1.26] 0.65 [0.51–0.85] 0.80 [0.58–1.09] 0.84 [0.60–1.17] 1.08 [0.72–1.61]
 Other 0.72 [0.35–1.50] 0.80 [0.36–1.77] 0.78 [0.48–1.29] 0.96 [0.39–2.37] 0.63 [0.37–1.05] 0.60 [0.26–1.36]
Wealth quintile
 Poorest (R)
 Second poorest 0.76** [0.63–0.92] 0.87 [0.65–1.18] 0.66** [0.50–0.88] 0.58** [0.39–0.87] 0.65** [0.49–0.87] 0.60** [0.43–0.85]
 Middle 0.65** [0.51–0.82] 0.84 [0.63–1.13] 0.42** [0.30–0.57] 0.45** [0.29–0.68] 0.57** [0.42–0.77] 0.51** [0.36–0.73]
 Second richest 0.42** [0.32–0.54] 0.59** [0.42–0.83] 0.35** [0.25–0.48] 0.30** [0.17–0.53] 0.49** [0.37–0.66] 0.56** [0.37–0.85]
 Richest 0.28** [0.22–0.35] 0.58* [0.38–0.88] 0.27** [0.19–0.39] 0.26** [0.12–0.54] 0.20** [0.14–0.29] 0.28** [0.16–0.49]
Place of residence
 Urban (R)
 Rural 1.86** [1.51–2.30] 1.06 [0.83–1.35] 1.97** [1.52–2.56] 1.35 [0.94–1.92] 1.42** [1.16–1.77] 1.05 [0.82–1.34]
 Ecological belt
 Mountain (R)
 Hill 0.64** [0.51–0.81] 0.90 [0.70–1.15] 0.65** [0.49–0.85] 0.67* [0.49–0.91] 0.54** [0.37–0.79] 0.80 [0.54–1.18]
Terai 0.54** [0.43–0.69] 0.51** [0.37–0.72] 0.53** [0.40–0.71] 0.67 [0.43–1.03] 0.66* [0.46–0.94] 0.84 [0.53–1.33]
Household food security status
 Food secure (R)
 Mildly food insecure NA NA 1.40** [1.02–1.95] 0.86 [0.58–1.29] 1.36** [1.07–1.71] 0.98 [0.75–1.28]
 Moderately food insecure NA NA 1.68** [1.28–2.21] 1.07 [0.75–1.53] 1.76** [1.37–2.26] 1.10 [0.82–1.47]
 Severely food insecure NA NA 1.93** [1.39–2.67] 1.17 [0.77–1.77] 2.10** [1.43–3.12] 1.32 [0.86–2.01]
Access of drinking water
 Unimproved (R)
 Improved 0.90 [0.76–1.06] 1.19 [0.98–1.44] 0.67 [0.51–0.88] 0.96 [0.68–1.34] 0.72 [0.48–1.07] 0.82 [0.53–1.29]
Access of toilet
 Unimproved (R)
 Improved 0.50** [0.41–0.61] 0.83 [0.59–1.17] 0.65** [0.51–0.81] 1.27 [0.91–1.77] 0.49** [0.38–0.62] 0.64 ** [0.46–0.88]
Maternal characteristics
Age of mother 1.05* [1.03–1.06] 0.97 [0.95–0.99] 1.03* [1.01–1.05] 0.97 [0.94–1.01] 1.02* [1.00–1.03] 0.99 [0.96–1.02]
Years of schooling of mother 0.87** [0.85–0.88] 0.92** [0.89–0.95] 0.92** [0.89–0.94] 1.00 [0.65–1.05] 0.91** [0.89–0.93] 0.98 [0.95–1.01]
Number of living children 1.65** [1.51–1.79] 1.12 [0.96–1.32] 1.39** [1.23–1.58] 1.05 [0.86–1.28] 1.50** [1.33–1.70] 1.17 [0.95–1.44]
Employment
 No (R)
 Yes 1.45** [1.21–1.74] 0.98 [0.80–1.21] 1.25 [0.96–1.62] 0.83 [0.59–1.17] 1.44** [1.20–1.73] 1.27* [1.01–1.60]
Mother BMI
 less than 18.5/underweight (R)
 18.5 and above 1.35** [1.16–1.58] 1.19 [0.98–1.44] 1.42** [1.10–1.83] 1.30 [0.93–1.81] 1.59** [1.23–2.04] 1.23 [0.94–1.60]
Mother anemia
 No (R)
 Yes 1.12 [0.97–1.30] 1.24* [1.04–1.48] 1.06 [0.86–1.30] 0.95 [0.74–1.23] 1.01 [0.84–1.24] 0.90 [0.72–1.14]
Child characteristics
 Age of child 2.11** [1.94–2.29] 2.24** [1.96–2.56] 1.80** [1.59–2.03] 2.58** [2.14–3.11] 1.61** [1.44–1.80] 1.58** [1.32–1.90]
Sex of child
 Boys (R)
 Girls 1.05 [0.91–1.21] 1.00 [0.85–1.17] 0.92 [0.77–1.10] 0.88 [0.71–1.10] 0.98 [0.81–1.20] 0.95 [0.76–1.17]
Birth order 1.17*** [1.13–1.21] 1.11* [1.02–1.20] 1.00 [1.00–1.01] 1.14 [1.03–1.26] 1.15** [1.09–1.21] 0.99 [0.89–1.10]
Size at the time of birth
 Average or larger (R)
 Below average 1.64** [1.37–1.946] 1.64** [1.34–2.00] 1.67** [1.29–2.18] 1.55** [1.19–2.02] 1.64** [1.31–2.05] 1.60** [1.25–2.04]
Anemia
 No (R)
 Yes 1.01 [0.87–1.17] 1.32** [1.12–1.56] 1.17 [0.95–1.43] 1.59** [1.25–2.02] 1.30** [1.06–1.61] 1.40** [1.12–1.75]
  1. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01, see more on Additional files 4, 5 and 6